hrtg-10k_20161231.htm

F7780

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Year Ended December 31, 2016

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Transition Period From                      to                     

Commission File Number 001-36462

 

Heritage Insurance Holdings, Inc.

 

 

Delaware

 

45-5338504

(STATE OF INCORPORATION)

 

(I.R.S. ID)

2600 McCormick Drive, Suite 300, Clearwater, Florida 33759

(727) 362-7200

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

 

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

Smaller reporting company

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was $244,038,590 on June 30, 2016, computed on the basis on the closing sale price of the Registrant’s common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on that date.

As of March 1, 2017, the number of shares outstanding of the Registrant’s common stock was 29,740,441.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, provided that if such Proxy Statement is not filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, an amendment to this Form 10-K shall be filed no later than the end of such 120-day period.

 

 

 

 


HERITAGE INSURANCE HOLDINGS, INC.

FORM 10-K

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2016

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

1

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

16

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

29

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

29

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

29

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosure

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

30

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

31

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

32

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

48

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

50

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

90

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

90

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

91

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

91

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

91

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

91

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

91

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

92

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statements Schedules

 

92

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

94

 

 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

95

 

 

 

 

 


FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding: our core strategy; our growth, results of operations or liquidity; statements concerning projections, predictions, expectations, estimates or forecasts as to our business, financial and operational results and future economic performance; statements of management’s goals and objectives; projections of revenue, earnings, capital structure and other financial items; assumptions underlying statements regarding us and our business; and other similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ. A detailed discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included throughout this filing and particularly in Item 1A: "Risk Factors" and Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All forward-looking statements included in this document are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to revise or publicly release any revision to any such forward-looking statement, except as may otherwise be required by law.

 

These statements are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about the industry and market in which we operate, and management’s beliefs and assumptions. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “estimate,” or “continue” or the negative variations thereof or comparable terminology are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. The risks and uncertainties include, without limitation:

 

 

our limited operating history;

 

the possibility that actual losses may exceed reserves;

 

the concentration of our business in Florida and Hawaii;

 

our exposure to catastrophic events;

 

the fluctuation in our results of operations;

 

increased costs of reinsurance, non-availability of reinsurance, and non-collectability of reinsurance;

 

increased competition, competitive pressures, and market conditions;

 

our failure to accurately price the risks we underwrite;

 

inherent uncertainty of our models and our reliance on such model as a tool to evaluate risk;

 

the failure of our claims department to effectively manage or remediate claims;

 

low renewal rates and failure of such renewals to meet our expectations;

 

our failure to execute our growth strategy;

 

failure of our information technology systems and unsuccessful development and implementation of new technologies;

 

we do not have significant redundancy in our operations;

 

our failure to attract and retain qualified employees and independent agents or our loss of key personnel;

 

our inability to generate investment income;

 

our inability to maintain our financial stability rating;

 

effects of emerging claim and coverage issues relating to legal, judicial, environmental and social conditions;

 

the failure of our risk mitigation strategies or loss limitation methods; and

 

changes in regulations and our failure to meet increased regulatory requirements.

 

Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.

 

The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrences of anticipated events. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. Consequently, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.

 

 

 

 


 

 

PART I

Item 1.

Business

Our Business

Heritage Insurance Holdings, Inc., (“we”, “our”, “us” and “Heritage Insurance”) is a property and casualty insurance holding company that provides personal and commercial residential insurance. We are headquartered in Clearwater, Florida and, through our subsidiaries, Heritage Property & Casualty Insurance Company (“Heritage P&C”) and Zephyr Insurance Company (“Zephyr”), we write personal residential insurance for single-family homeowners and condominium owners, and rental property insurance in the states of Florida, Hawaii, North Carolina and South Carolina. We also provide commercial residential insurance for Florida properties and are also licensed in the states of Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. We are vertically integrated and control or manage substantially all aspects of insurance underwriting, customer service, actuarial analysis, distribution and claims processing and adjusting. We are led by an experienced senior management team with an average of 30 years of insurance industry experience. We began operations in August 2012, and in December 2012 we began selectively assuming policies from Citizens Property Insurance Corporation (“Citizens”), a Florida state-supported insurer, through participation in a legislatively established “depopulation program” designed to reduce the state’s risk exposure by encouraging private companies to assume insurance policies from Citizens. We also write policies outside the Citizens depopulation program, which we refer to as voluntary policies. At December 31, 2016, approximately 53% of our policies in force were assumed from Citizens.  Heritage P&C and Zephyr are currently rated “A” (“Exceptional”) or better by Demotech, Inc. (“Demotech”), a rating agency specializing in evaluating the financial stability of insurers.

In addition to Heritage P&C, our other subsidiaries include: Heritage Property & Casualty Insurance Company (“Heritage P&C”), which provides personal and commercial residential insurance; Heritage MGA, LLC, the managing general agent that manages substantially all aspects of our Florida insurance subsidiary’s business; Contractors’ Alliance Network, LLC (“CAN”), our vendor network manager for Florida claims which includes BRC Restoration Specialists, Inc. (“BRC”), our provider of restoration, emergency and recovery services; Zephyr Acquisition Company (“ZAC”) and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Zephyr Insurance Company, Inc. (“Zephyr”), our provider for writing insurance policies for residential wind insurance within the State of Hawaii; Skye Lane Properties, LLC, our property management subsidiary; First Access Insurance Group, LLC, our retail agency; Osprey Re Ltd. (“Osprey”), our reinsurance subsidiary that provides a portion of the reinsurance protection purchased by our insurance subsidiaries; and Heritage Insurance Claims, LLC, an inactive subsidiary reserved for future development. The assets of BRC, a building restoration company, were acquired and merged into CAN in 2015. The assets of SVM Restoration Services Inc. (“SVM”), a water mitigation company, were acquired and merged into CAN in 2014.

Our Company

Our company was initially formed as a Florida limited liability company in 2012. On January 1, 2014, we formed a Delaware limited liability company, also named Heritage Insurance Holdings, LLC, and merged with it in order to domicile the Company in

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Delaware. Effective May 22, 2014, Heritage Insurance Holdings, LLC converted into a Delaware corporation named Heritage Insurance Holdings, Inc.

Our primary products are personal and commercial residential insurance, which at December 31, 2016 were offered in Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina and Hawaii.  Our Florida domiciled insurance company, Heritage P&C, is authorized by each of the respective state insurance departments in Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, George, Alabama and Mississippi. Our Hawaii domiciled insurance company, Zephyr, writes business only in Hawaii and is authorized by the Hawaii Insurance Division. We conduct our operations under one business segment.

As of December 31, 2016, we had 319,676 personal residential policies in force, representing $516.7 million of annualized premium and 3,625 commercial residential policies in force, representing $118.6 million of annualized premium. Approximately 53% of our personal policies and 53% of our commercial policies as of December 31, 2016 were assumed from Citizens. For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, we had gross premiums written of $626.7 million, $586.1 million and $436.4 million, respectively, and net income of $33.9 million, $92.5 million and $47.1 million, respectively. At December 31, 2016 and 2015, we had total assets of $1 billion and $837.4 million, respectively, and total stockholders’ equity of $358 million and $357 million, respectively.

As of December 31, 2016, Citizens had approximately 456,000 insurance policies, of which approximately 440,000 were personal residential policies and approximately 5,900 were commercial residential policies. We have selectively assumed personal residential policies from Citizens in 27 separate assumption transactions between December 2012 and May 2016. In October 2014 we completed our first commercial residential assumption transaction. During 2016, approximately 11,900 policies were assumed from Citizens. Given the reduced policy count at Citizens resulting from the depopulation program, we do not expect to continue to assume policies from Citizens in the foreseeable future.

Recent Developments

 

On December 15, 2016, the Company issued $79.5 million in Senior Secured Notes (“Secured Notes”) due 2023 to six accredited investors. Proceeds will be used to participate opportunistically in mergers and acquisitions, to make strategic investments and for general corporate purposes. In connection with the issuance of the Notes, the Company incurred $6.6 million in debt issuance costs. Debt issuance costs are reflected on the consolidated balance sheet as a contra long-term liability, and amortized using the imputed interest method over the life of the underlying debt instrument. For tax purposes, the debt issuance costs are generally amortized over the life of the debt using the straight-line method. See Note 11 — “Note Payable” to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

On August 28, 2016 and October 1, 2016, Hurricanes Hermine and Matthew struck Florida.  These were the first hurricanes to affect Florida since the 2004/2005 hurricane seasons. The impact to our 2016 net income was $13.4 million. Losses for Hurricanes Matthew and Hermine are estimated to be $18.8 million and $3 million, respectively, before tax. Our reinsurance coverage for the season could exceed $3.1 billion in total with up to $2 billion for a first event. Our Florida retention for our reinsurance coverage is $40 million. Thus, there were no recoveries from reinsurers related to the Hurricanes Hermine and Matthew in 2016.

On March 21, 2016, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding stock of ZAC and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Zephyr, in exchange for approximately $110.3 million net of cash acquired. Zephyr is a specialty property insurance provider that offers policies for residential customers in Hawaii that cover the peril of windstorm losses caused by a hurricane. This acquisition furthers the Company’s strategic push to diversify business operations and achieve potential reinsurance synergies while expanding growth opportunities outside of Florida. The acquisition provides Heritage with an immediate presence in Hawaii with Zephyr holding approximately 30% of the wind-only market share in the state. The purchase price for the acquisition was approximately $134 million.

On September 14, 2015, the Company announced that the Board of Directors authorized a $20 million share repurchase program through December 31, 2016 under which purchases may be made from time to time in the open market, or through privately negotiated transactions, block transactions or other techniques, as determined by the Company’s management. On May 4, 2016, the Board of Directors authorized an additional stock repurchase of up to $50 million of the Company’s common stock through December 31, 2017.  For the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company had purchased through open market or private transactions an aggregate of 1,759,330 shares at a total cost of $25.6 million and had available to purchase under the program $44.4 million.

On March 1, 2016, the Company’s Board of Directors declared a $0.05 per share quarterly cash dividends payable on April 5, 2016, to stockholders of record on March 15, 2016. On May 4, 2016, the Company announced the Board of Directors had declared a second quarter dividend of $0.06 per share to stockholders of record as of June 15, 2016. The dividend was paid on July 1, 2016. On August 1, 2016, the Company announced that its Board of Directors declared a third quarter dividend of $0.06 per common share. The dividend was paid on October 03, 2016. On November 8, 2016, the Company announced that its Board of Directors has declared a quarterly cash dividend on the Company’s common stock of $0.06 per share. The fourth quarter dividend of $0.06 per share was paid on January 4, 2017 to stockholders of record as of December 15, 2016. The declaration and payment of any future dividends will

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be subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend on a variety of factors including the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

In August 2015, the Company announced that it received its Certificate of Authority (“COA”) to write property and casualty insurance in the state of North Carolina, which marked the beginning of the Heritage P&C multi-state expansion. In 2016, Heritage P&C also received its COA in South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. The Company currently actively writes business in Florida, Hawaii, North Carolina, South Carolina, and in 2017 began writing policies in Georgia.  

In July 2015, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets of BRC, a Florida based provider of restoration services and emergency and recovery assistance. At closing, Company paid $6 million in cash and 79,850 shares of the Company’s common stock valued at $2 million.  

Our Strategy

From our inception until December 31, 2015, a substantial portion of our new business was generated from policies we assumed from Citizens and Sunshine State Insurance Company (“SSIC”).  The renewal of these assumed policies, new voluntary business, and renewals of voluntary policies and from our newly acquired Zephyr business comprises our revenue for 2016. We intend to continue to grow profitably by undertaking the following:

Mergers and Acquisitions and/or Making Strategic Investments

We successfully closed strategic acquisitions in each of 2014, 2015 and 2016. This includes the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of SVM and BRC, acquisition of the SSIC policies, and acquisition of the stock of ZAC. The acquisitions of SVM and BRC provided unique claims adjusting and repair resources to better serve our policyholders and better manage loss costs. At December 31, 2016, we had 19,680 SSIC policies in force with an annualized premium of $34.7 million. The acquisition of Zephyr provided an immediate presence in the state of Hawaii with approximately $58 million in annual voluntary premium and a strategic diversification to our platform as well as leveraged reinsurance synergies. We recently closed a private placement of senior secured notes, which provides net proceeds of over $70 million of resources to make strategic investments. These activities demonstrate our commitment and capability to successfully identify, finance, and execute mergers and acquisitions to effectively grow our business.

Expand to New Geographic Markets

Heritage P&C became authorized to write property business in Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi and is actively writing in North Carolina and South Carolina. We intend to explore opportunities to enter other states where we can utilize our underwriting and claims expertise to attract and manage profitable business. We believe further increasing our geographic diversification is an important factor in reducing our potential risk of loss from any single catastrophic event, reducing our per policy reinsurance costs and providing an additional arena for future growth beyond our existing market. In addition, through our acquisition of Zephyr we acquired over 70,000 policies in the state of Hawaii.  For example, we entered into a marketing agreement with National General Insurance Company and began writing homeowners insurance through their distribution network in early 2016 in the state of North Carolina.

Increase Our Premium in Force in Florida  

We have significantly expanded our marketing efforts in Florida. We intend to increase the number of profitable voluntary personal lines policies through expansion of strategic relationships with our independent agent distribution network and other producers of personal lines property insurance in Florida. We currently write commercial residential business in the state of Florida only and we anticipate expansion of our commercial residential business in the state. We may also expand market share through strategic opportunities to acquire profitable business from private insurers. We do not anticipate continuing to assume policies from Citizens.

Optimize Our Reinsurance Program

We will continue to obtain what we believe to be the most appropriate levels and sources of reinsurance. We believe that the significant additional capital entering portions of the reinsurance market provides us with the opportunity to obtain favorable pricing and contract terms and conditions, including multi-year commitments, which comprise a significant portion of our 2016-2017 reinsurance program. For the 2014, 2015 and 2016 hurricane seasons, we entered into fully collateralized multi-year catastrophe reinsurance agreements funded through the issuance of a total of $727.5 million principal amount of catastrophe bonds, and we will continue evaluating such cost-efficient alternatives to traditional reinsurance. Additionally, we will continue to meet certain of our reinsurance needs through the use of our reinsurance subsidiary, Osprey, which helps to manage our reinsurance expense and reduces our reliance on third-party reinsurance.

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Efficiently Manage Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses

We are committed to proactively managing our losses and loss adjustment expenses through prudent underwriting performing critical aspects of claims adjusting through our employees, and the use of internal claims adjustment and repair services. In March 2014, we acquired the largest vendor in the CAN network, which we believe has allowed us to expand our in-house mitigation and restoration services. Additionally, the 2015 acquisition of assets of BRC provides us with additional resources and capabilities to perform restoration services in-house, as well as provide construction resources after a catastrophic event. We have additional contracted resources to adjust claims and mitigate losses which were deployed after Hurricanes Hermine and Matthew. The multitude of internal and external resources allowed us to deliver timely service to our policyholders and better manage claims costs

Effectively Manage the Bottom Line

In addition to our proactive efforts to manage losses and loss adjustment expenses, we will continue to be proactive with respect to technology to better serve our agents and policyholders, streamline our processes, manage systems implementation costs, and focus on efficiency.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe that our growth to date and our ability to capitalize on our future growth prospects are a result of the following competitive strengths of our business:

Experienced Management Team With a Long History in the Residential Property Insurance Market

We have a deep and experienced executive management team led by Bruce Lucas, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Richard Widdicombe, President, Steven Martindale, Chief Financial Officer, and Ernesto Garateix, Chief Operating Officer. Our senior management team includes twelve insurance professionals, which averages 30 years of insurance industry experience, has extensive experience in the personal and commercial residential insurance market, particularly in Florida, has built longstanding relationships with key participants in the insurance industry and is supported by a group of highly qualified individuals with industry expertise, including a Chief Actuary with more than 37 years of industry experience.

Strong, Conservative Capital Structure

As of December 31, 2016, we had stockholders’ equity of $358 million. As of December 31, 2016, Heritage P&C and Zephyr had policyholder surplus, as defined by statutory accounting principles, of $200 million and $76 million, respectively. We believe that these levels of surplus places us among the best capitalized insurance companies focusing primarily on the Florida personal residential insurance market and the Hawaii wind-only residential market and is in excess of the minimum capital levels required by our insurance regulators and Demotech for similarly rated in-state insurance companies.

Selective Underwriting and Policy Acquisition Criteria

We believe our proprietary data analytics capabilities and underwriting processes has allowed us to better select the insurance policies we assumed from the Citizens depopulation program, leading to strong profitability and reduced risk. These analytics and underwriting processes also contribute to successful underwriting of our voluntary business. Our data analytics are embedded in the underwriting process and are used for strategic expansion into new product lines and states. We choose to minimize our exposure to or avoid certain types of coverage if we believe there is significant risk of loss, including coverage for sink-hole related losses in high-risk areas.

Unique Claims Servicing Model and Superior Customer Service

We believe that the vertical integration of our claims adjustment, water mitigation, and repair services provides us with a competitive advantage. Through our management of both claims adjusting and repair services, we are generally able to begin the adjustment and mitigation process much earlier than most competitors, thus reducing our loss adjustment expenses and ultimate loss payouts. A significant number of our repair technicians are participating in training and certification programs to become licensed claims adjusters (ten are licensed), allowing us to capture additional efficiencies. We also believe our unique model provides a superior level of customer service for our policyholders, enhancing our reputation and increasing the likelihood that our policyholders will renew their policies with us.

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Relationships with Highly Rated Reinsurers

We manage our exposure to catastrophic events through, among other things, the purchase of reinsurance. Our relationships with highly rated reinsurers have been developed as a result of our management team’s industry experience and reputation for selective underwriting. Our financial strength, underwriting results and the long-term relationships between our management team and our reinsurance partners help improve the cost-effectiveness of our reinsurance program.

Relationships with Independent Agents and National Underwriters

We have developed relationships with a network of approximately 1,900 independent insurance agents. We believe we have been able to build this network due to our reputation for financial stability, commitment to our markets and integrity in the underwriting and claims process. We have entered into strategic relationships with national insurers and agencies that no longer write substantial personal residential insurance in some of the states in which we do business, which provides us access to their network of agents.

Our Competition

The market for residential property insurance is highly competitive in many of the states in which we do business. We compete to varying degrees with insurers including large national carriers, state-sponsored homeowners’ insurance entities, and single state or regional carriers. We believe Heritage differentiates itself from many competitors with our service levels, financial resources, streamlined processes, and vertical integration which provides loss mitigation and repair services.

Products and Distribution

We market and write personal lines voluntary policies through a network of approximately 1,900 independent agents. We intend to pursue additional voluntary business from agents in our existing independent agent network, expand our independent agent network and seek additional opportunities to use insurer-affiliated agents to offer our personal residential policies in the states in which we are licensed. We had 150,998 voluntary personal residential policies (47.3% of our total policies in force) as of December 31, 2016.  Our growth strategy centers on the voluntary market as well as opportunistic acquisitions.

We currently write commercial residential business only in the state of Florida.  We market and write commercial residential voluntary policies through a network of approximately 400 independent agents. We intend to pursue additional voluntary business from these agents in our existing independent agent network, expand our independent agent network and seek additional opportunities to increase our commercial residential policies in Florida. We started writing voluntary policies in October 2014. At December 31, 2016, we had 1,714 voluntary policies. The commercial voluntary market is a major component of our corporate growth strategy.  At December 31, 2016 and 2015, commercial business represented 18.7% and 19.2%, respectively, of the premium in force.

In order to limit our potential exposure to individual risks and catastrophic events, we purchase significant reinsurance from third party reinsurers. Purchasing reinsurance is an important part of our risk strategy, and premiums paid (or ceded) to reinsurers is one of our largest costs. We have strong relationships with reinsurers which we believe are a result of our management’s industry experience and reputation for selective underwriting and effective claim management. For each of the twelve months beginning June 1, 2015 and 2016, we purchased catastrophe reinsurance from the following sources: (i) the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund, a state-mandated catastrophe fund (“FHCF”), (ii) private reinsurers, all of which were rated “A-” or higher by A.M. Best Company, Inc. (“A.M. Best”) or Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”) or were fully collateralized, (iii) sponsorship of multiple catastrophe bonds that provide $728 million of principal limit that can be drawn upon over a three year period, and (iv) our wholly-owned reinsurance subsidiary, Osprey. In addition to purchasing catastrophe reinsurance, we also purchased property risk reinsurance which limits our net exposure in the event of a severe non-catastrophe loss impacting a single location or risk to $1 million. We also utilize facultative reinsurance to supplement our per risk reinsurance program where our capacity needs dictate. See “-Reinsurance – 2016 – 2017 Catastrophe Reinsurance Program”.

Our insurance regulators requires all insurance companies, like us, to have a certain amount of capital reserves and reinsurance coverage in order to cover losses upon the occurrence of a catastrophic event. Our reinsurance programs for each of the twelve months beginning June 1, 2015 and 2016 provides reinsurance in excess of regulatory requirements, which are based on the probable maximum loss that we would incur from an individual catastrophic event estimated to occur once every 100 years based on our portfolio of insured risks. We also purchase reinsurance coverage to protect against the potential for multiple catastrophic events occurring in the same year.

We test the sufficiency of our reinsurance program by subjecting our personal and commercial residential exposures to statistical testing using the AIR U.S. Hurricane Model, which replicates the most severe hurricanes to have occurred historically in states in which we conduct business, individual storms of severity in excess of such historical levels, and the historical calendar years

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in which the most severe multiple catastrophic events have occurred. For example, the 2004 calendar year, in which four large catastrophic hurricanes made landfall in Florida, is considered to be the worst catastrophic year in Florida’s recorded history. Assuming the reoccurrence of the 2004 calendar year events, the probable after tax net loss to us in 2016, based on the coverage for our 2016-2017 reinsurance program, would be $40.3 million (after tax, net of all reinsurance recoveries and including our retention through Osprey). This loss would have represented 11.3% of our stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2016.

While a significant hurricane has not made landfall in Hawaii since 1992, Hurricane Iniki caused a combined estimated property damage of over $1.8 billion.  Assuming the reoccurrence of Hurricane Iniki, the probable after tax net loss to us in 2016, based on the coverage for our 2016-2017 reinsurance program, would be $19.5 million (after tax, net of all reinsurance recoveries and including our retention through Osprey). This loss would have represented 5.4% of our stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2016.

We closely manage all aspects of our claims adjustment process. Claims are initially reviewed by our managers and staff adjusters, who determine the extent of the loss and the resources needed to adjust each claim. In the case of a catastrophic event, we have contracted with multiple large national claims adjusting firms to assist our adjusters with the increased volume of claims and ensure timely responses to our policyholders. In March 2014, we completed the acquisition of the assets and personnel of our main water mitigation services vendor and created our wholly-owned subsidiary, CAN. This acquisition has allowed us to better service our Florida based customers and expand our mitigation and restoration services. We utilize CAN to manage mitigation and restoration services for our customers. CAN primarily handles water damage-related claims, which comprised approximately 48.7% of our losses and loss adjustment expenses through December 31, 2016. We also leverage our 2015 acquisition, BRC, to manage and provide restoration services to CAN customers for all types of claims. BRC has provided services for non-insurance related projects but we expect to shift toward BRC handling only affiliated insurance claims. We believe our approach to claims handling results in a higher level of customer service and reduces our losses and loss adjustment expenses.

Our Market

Nearly 90% of our premium in force is generated from properties located in the State of Florida.  According to the U.S. Census Bureau, at July 1, 2016, Florida was the third largest U.S. state with an estimated population of approximately 21 million people. The University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research estimates that Florida is expected to reach a population of approximately 26 million people by 2040, an increase of 30% from 2015. Property ownership and development represent key drivers of the Florida economy.

The states in which we do business are exposed to an increased risk of hurricanes during the entire six months of the Atlantic and Pacific hurricane season, which spans from June 1 through November 30. Florida experienced two hurricanes in 2016.  Eight hurricanes in 2004 and 2005, including Hurricanes Charley, Katrina, Rita and Wilma, caused a combined estimated property damage of over $110 billion, a significant portion of which occurred in Florida. While a significant hurricane has not made landfall in Hawaii since 1992, when Hurricane Iniki caused a combined estimated property damage of over $1.8 billion. As a result, personal residential insurance and claims servicing are vitally important to our policyholders.

According to data compiled by the Florida Office of Insurance Regulations (“FLOIR”), which excludes State Farm Florida Insurance Company, Citizens was the largest residential insurance carrier in Florida as of September 30, 2016, with a market share of approximately 9.1% based on total in force direct premiums written for personal and commercial residential insurance. As of the same date, we ranked third in Florida within this market, with a market share of approximately 5.8%. Through December 31, 2015, 100% of our business was generated in Florida and our growth was largely through our depopulation efforts. We assumed approximately 12,000 policies from Citizens in 2016 with the last assumption in May 2016. Assuming further access to capital and reinsurance support, we believe we have the opportunity to significantly expand the size of our voluntary personal and commercial residential insurance business. In 2016, we expanded Heritage P&C’s certificate of authority to write property and casualty insurance in the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, and in Georgia in 2017. Our acquisition of Zephyr adds approximately 70,000 policies to the Company.  In recent years, the property and casualty insurance market has experienced a substantial increase in the availability of property catastrophe reinsurance resulting from the increased supply of capital from non-traditional insurance providers, including private capital and hedge funds. This increased capital supply, has reduced the cost of property catastrophe reinsurance, directly benefitting purchasers of this reinsurance, including us.

Underwriting

Our underwriters evaluate and accept only those risks that they believe will enable us to achieve an underwriting profit. In order to achieve underwriting profitability on a consistent basis, we focus on (1) the suitability of the risk to be assumed or written, (2) the adequacy of the premium with regard to the risk to be assumed or written and (3) the geographic distribution of existing policies for our business.

6

 


All of our personal lines underwriting is performed internally with our experienced staff in Florida and Hawaii.   Our underwriters use our proprietary data analytics capabilities, which include a number of automated processes, to analyze a number of risk evaluation factors, including the age, construction, location and value of the residence and the premiums to be received from insuring the residence. New technological advances in computer generated geographical mapping afford us an enhanced perspective as to geographic concentrations of policyholders. When considering the geographic distribution of existing policies, our underwriters may consider the number of other properties we insure within the same region, county, city and zip code. We also consider the cost of reinsurance when assessing the adequacy of the premium with regard to the risk to be assumed or written. The underwriting criteria that we consider will continue to evolve as our business grows and expands.

We also review our expiring policies to determine whether those risks continue to meet our underwriting guidelines. If a given policy no longer meets our underwriting guidelines, we will take appropriate action regarding that policy, including raising premium rates or, to the extent permitted by applicable law and our assumption agreements with Citizens, not offering to renew the policy.

Policy Administration

We have engaged West Point Underwriters, Inc. and Majesco Mastec, providers of web-based software solutions and insurance personnel, to provide us with policy administration services for our business, including processing, billing and policy maintenance. The software is able to adapt to a variety of forms and rates, handle the administration of an increasing number of policies as our Company grows and expands, and provide detailed information about our book of business to our internal underwriters so that they can adjust our underwriting criteria as necessary. The software provides us with daily updates regarding the insurance policies that we have issued. The systems also allow us to provide renewal notices, late payment notices, cancellation notices, endorsements and policies to our policyholders in a timely fashion.

Claims Administration

We closely manage all aspects of the claims process, from processing the initial filing to providing remediation services for Florida claims through our wholly-owned subsidiary, CAN. When a policyholder contacts us to report a claim, members of our claims department create a claim file and aggregate the appropriate supporting documentation. Claims are then reviewed by our managers and staff adjusters, who assess the extent of the loss, including through on-site investigations, and determine the resources needed to adjust each claim. Our claims are generally adjusted by our staff claims professionals, except in the case of a catastrophic event for which we have contracted with several large national claims adjusting firms to assist our adjusters with the increased volume of claims and ensure timely responses to our policyholders. We currently leverage our CAN vendor network to provide repair and remediation services to Florida policyholders; this model could be expanded to other states

We perform or supervise the services rendered to our policyholders at all stages of the claims process, which we believe allows us to reduce cost and provide a high level of customer service to our policyholders.  We have in-house resources as well as outsourced vendor relationships for water mitigation and rebuilding after a loss for our Florida policyholders. We have outsourced vendor relationships to provide these services to our policyholders outside of Florida.  To encourage our Florida policyholders to allow us to manage their claims from beginning to end, we developed our Platinum Program. Under the Platinum Program, participating customers receive a 10% discount on their claim deductible, and we obtain control over inspection, claims adjusting and repair services, with the repair services being managed by either CAN or one of our contracted vendors. In March 2014, we acquired the largest vendor in the CAN network, which has allowed us to expand our in-house mitigation and restoration services. In August 2015, we acquired BRC to allow us to further expand our restoration services. These resources help to mitigate some of the impact of Assignment of Benefit challenges primarily found in South Florida.

Citizens Assumption Transactions

As of December 31, 2016, we have selectively assumed, net of cancellations, an aggregate of approximately 230,000 policies through participation in the Citizens depopulation program. Citizens generally offers depopulations on a monthly basis. From December 2012 through May 2016, we participated in 27 depopulations. Given the current population of policies written by Citizens, we do not anticipate participating in the depopulation program for the foreseeable future.

In order to be eligible to participate in an assumption transaction, we first apply to FLOIR for approval to assume a specified number of policies. On the effective date of assumption transactions, Citizens transfers to us the unearned premiums for the policies that have not opted out of the assumption transaction. A policyholder may also opt-out during the 30-day period following the effective date of the assumption transaction. If a policyholder opts-out during such period, we return the applicable unearned premiums to Citizens.

Under the terms of our typical assumption agreement with Citizens, we assume all liability and obligation for losses under the assumed policies arising on or after the effective date of the assumption transaction, and we directly service all policyholder claims

7

 


related to such losses. All terms and conditions of the assumed policies, including coverage and rates, remain unchanged for the remainder of the policy term. Citizens remains liable for all losses under the assumed policies arising prior to the effective date of the assumption transaction and is solely responsible for servicing all policyholder claims related to such losses.

We strive to retain these policies by offering competitive rates and efficient claims handling to our policyholders. In 2016, we renewed approximately 84% and 78% of the personal lines and commercial lines policies we assumed from Citizens, respectively.

Liability For Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses

Our liability for losses and loss adjustment expenses represents our preliminary estimated lability of (i) claims that have been incurred, but not yet paid (case reserves), (ii) claims that have been incurred but not yet reported to us (“IBNR”), and (iii) loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”) which are intended to cover the ultimate cost of settling claims, including investigation and defense of lawsuits resulting from such claims.

Considerable time can pass between the occurrence of an insured loss, the reporting of the loss and the payment of that loss. Our liability for losses and LAE, which we believe represents the best estimate at a given point in time based on facts, circumstances and historical trends then known, may necessarily be adjusted to reflect additional facts that become available during the loss settlement period. We continually review and adjust our estimated losses as necessary based on industry development trends, evolving claims experience and new information obtained.

For a discussion and summary of the activity in the liability for losses and LAE for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, see Note 10 — “Reserve for Unpaid Losses” to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Loss Development

Our liability for losses and loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”) represents estimated costs ultimately required to settle all claims for a given period. The following table illustrates development of the estimated liability for losses and LAE as of December 31 for the years 2012 (inception) through 2016 (in thousands):

 

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2012

 

 

2013

 

 

2014

 

 

2015

 

 

2016

 

Original liability for losses and LAE1

 

$

1,243

 

 

$

19,344

 

 

$

51,469

 

 

$

83,722

 

 

$

140,137

 

Re-estimated losses and LAE2 as of:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 year later

 

$

798

 

 

$

19,121

 

 

$

46,184

 

 

$

102,512

 

 

$

 

2 years later

 

$

757

 

 

$

16,846

 

 

$

46,324

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

3 years later

 

$

784

 

 

$

16,740

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

4 years later

 

$

797

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Cumulative redundancy (deficiency) 3

 

$

446

 

 

$

2,604

 

 

$

5,145

 

 

$

(18,790

)

 

$

 

Cumulative amount of liability paid as of:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 year later

 

$

548

 

 

$

12,052

 

 

$

27,265

 

 

$

65,065

 

 

$

 

2 years later

 

$

627

 

 

$

13,472

 

 

$

37,236

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

3 years later

 

$

689

 

 

$

14,946

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

4 years later

 

$

766

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Gross premiums earned

 

$

6,055

 

 

$

139,959

 

 

$

311,514

 

 

$

524,740

 

 

$

640,518

 

 

 

 

(1)

Represents management’s original best estimated liability of (i) unpaid claims, (ii) incurred but not reported (“IBNR”) and (iii) loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”).

(2)

Represents the re-estimated liabilities in later years of unpaid claims, IBNR and loss adjustment expenses in the respective years.

(3)

Represents the difference between the latest re-estimate and the original estimate. A redundancy means the original estimate is higher than the current estimate whereas a deficiency means that the original estimate is lower than the current estimate.

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Technology

Our business depends upon the use, development and implementation of integrated technology systems. These systems enable us to provide a high level of service to agents and policyholders by processing business efficiently, communicating and sharing data with agents, providing a variety of methods for the payment of premiums and allowing for the accumulation and analysis of information for our management. We believe the availability and use of these technology systems has resulted in improved service to agents and customers, increased efficiencies in processing our multi-state insurance business and lower operating costs.

We also license software from third parties, including West Point Underwriters, Majesco Mastec and AIR Worldwide, Inc. (“AIR”). AIR’s catastrophe modeling software enables us to optimize our insurance portfolio to manage our reinsurance costs. We also own or license other technology systems used by our insurance company affiliates. These technology systems consist primarily of an integrated central processing computer, a series of server-based computer networks, a back-up server and various Internet-based communications systems.

Reinsurance

In order to limit our potential exposure to catastrophic events, we purchase significant reinsurance from third party reinsurers and sponsor catastrophe bonds (Citrus Re). We also purchase property per risk reinsurance and facultative coverage for non-catastrophe related to losses in excess of $1 million. Purchasing reinsurance is an important part of our risk strategy, and premiums paid (or ceded) to reinsurers is one of our largest cost components. Reinsurance involves transferring, or “ceding”, a portion of the risk exposure on policies we write to another insurer, known as a reinsurer. To the extent that our reinsurers are unable to meet the obligations they assume under our reinsurance agreements, we remain liable for the entire insured loss. See in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors”. We may not be able to collect reinsurance amounts due to us from the reinsurers with which we have contracted.

Our reinsurance agreements are short-term, prospective contracts. We record an asset, prepaid reinsurance premiums, and a liability, reinsurance payable, for the entire contract amount upon commencement of our new reinsurance agreements. We amortize our reinsurance premiums over the 12-month contract period, which is June 1 through May 31.

In the event that we incur losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable under our reinsurance program, we record amounts recoverable from our reinsurers on paid losses plus an estimate of amounts recoverable on unpaid losses. The estimate of amounts recoverable on unpaid losses is a function of our liability for unpaid losses associated with the reinsured policies; therefore, the amount changes in conjunction with any changes to our estimate of unpaid losses. As a result, a reasonable possibility exists that an estimated recovery may change significantly in the near term from the amounts included in our consolidated financial statements.

Our insurance regulators requires all insurance companies, like us, to have a certain amount of capital and reinsurance coverage in order to cover losses and loss adjustment expenses upon the occurrence of a catastrophic event. Our 2016-2017 reinsurance program provides reinsurance in excess of our state regulator requirements, which are based on the probable maximum loss that we would incur from an individual catastrophic event estimated to occur once in every 100 years based on our portfolio of insured risks. The nature, severity and location of the event giving rise to such a probable maximum loss differs for each insurer depending on the insurer’s portfolio of insured risks, including, among other things, the geographic concentration of insured value within such portfolio. As a result, a particular catastrophic event could be a one-in-100 year loss event for one insurance company while having a greater or lesser probability of occurrence for another insurance company. We also purchase reinsurance coverage to protect against the potential for multiple catastrophic events occurring in the same year.

 

2016 - 2017 Reinsurance Program

The Company placed its reinsurance program for the period from June 1, 2016 through May 31, 2017 during the second quarter of 2016. This reinsurance program incorporates the catastrophe risk of our two insurance subsidiaries, Heritage P&C, a Florida based insurer and Zephyr, a Hawaii based insurer, into one reinsurance structure. The programs are incorporated into one reinsurance structure and are allocated amongst traditional reinsurers, catastrophe bonds issued by Citrus Re Ltd., a Bermuda special purpose insurer formed in 2014 (“Citrus Re”), and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (“FHCF”). Coverage is shared by both insurers unless otherwise noted. The 2016-2017 reinsurance program provides, including retention, first event coverage up to $1.9 billion in Florida, first event coverage up to $1.1 billion in Hawaii, and multiple event coverage up to $3 billion.

The reinsurance program, which is segmented into layers of coverage, protects the Company for excess property catastrophe losses and loss adjustment expenses. The Company’s 2016-2017 reinsurance program incorporates the mandatory coverage required by law to be placed with FHCF, which is available only for Florida catastrophe risk. For the 2016 hurricane season, the Company reduced its selected participation percentage in the FHCF from 75% to 45%. The Company also purchased private reinsurance below, alongside and above the FHCF layer, as well as aggregate reinsurance coverage. The following describes the various layers of the Company’s June 1, 2016 to May 31, 2017 reinsurance program.

 

The Company’s Retention. If a first catastrophic event strikes Florida, the Company has a primary retention of the first $40 million of losses and loss adjustment expenses, of which Osprey is responsible for $20 million. If a first catastrophic

9

 


 

event strikes Hawaii, the Company has a primary retention of the first $30 million of losses and loss adjustment expenses, of which Osprey is responsible for $15 million. If a second catastrophic event strikes Florida, Heritage P&C’s primary retention decreases to $15 million and the remainder of the losses are ceded to third parties. If a second event strikes Hawaii, Zephyr’s primary retention decreases to $5 million. In the second event only for a loss exceeding $190 million, there is an additional Company co-participation of 5.4% subject to a maximum co-participation of $11.6 million. Heritage P&C and Zephyr each have a $5 million primary retention for events beyond the second catastrophic event. Osprey has no primary retention beyond the first catastrophic event in Florida or Hawaii. Additionally, Osprey is responsible for payment of up to $5.3 million of reinstatement premium, depending on the amount of losses incurred.

 

 

Shared Layers above retention and below FHCF. Immediately above the retention, the Company has purchased $374 million of reinsurance from third party reinsurers. Through the payment of a reinstatement premium, the Company is able to reinstate the full amount of this reinsurance one time. To the extent that $374 million or a portion thereof is exhausted in a first catastrophic event, the Company has purchased reinstatement premium protection insurance to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of this coverage.

 

 

FHCF Layer. The Company’s FHCF program provides coverage for Florida events only and includes an estimated maximum provisional limit of 45% of $1.5 billion, in excess of its retention of $460 million. The limit and retention of the FHCF coverage is subject to upward or downward adjustment based on, among other things, submitted exposures to FHCF by all participants. The Company has purchased coverage alongside from third party reinsurers and through reinsurance agreements with Citrus Re. To the extent the FHCF coverage is adjusted, this private reinsurance with third party reinsurers and Citrus Re will adjust to fill in any gaps in coverage up to the reinsurers’ aggregate limits for this layer. The FHCF coverage cannot be reinstated once exhausted, but it does provide coverage for multiple events.

 

 

Layers alongside the FHCF. The Florida reinsurance program includes third party layers alongside the FHCF. These include 2015 C and 2015 B series catastrophe bonds, which cover Florida only for the 2016 season, and 2016 D and 2016 E catastrophe bond series issued by Citrus Re, which total $377.5 million of coverage, as discussed below, as well as a traditional reinsurance layer providing $200 million of coverage. Through a reinstatement, the Company is able to reinstate the full amount of the $200 million of reinsurance one time. These 2016 catastrophe bonds and the traditional reinsurance layer provide coverage for both Florida and Hawaii catastrophe losses.

 

2016 Class D and E Notes: During February 2016, Heritage P&C and Zephyr entered into two catastrophe reinsurance agreements with Citrus Re. The agreements provide for three years of coverage from catastrophic losses caused by named storms, including hurricanes, beginning on June 1, 2016. Heritage P&C and Zephyr pay a periodic premium to Citrus Re during this three-year risk period. Citrus Re issued an aggregate of $250 million of principal-at-risk variable notes due February 2019 to fund the reinsurance trust account and its obligations to Heritage P&C and Zephyr under the reinsurance agreements. The Class D notes provide $150 million of coverage and the Class E notes provide $100 million of coverage. The Class D and Class E notes provide reinsurance coverage for a sliver of the catastrophe coverage that had previously been provided by the FHCF. The limit of coverage is fully collateralized by a reinsurance trust account for the benefit of Heritage P&C and Zephyr. The maturity date of the notes may be extended up to two additional years to satisfy claims for catastrophic events occurring during the three-year term of the reinsurance agreements.

 

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2015 Class B and C Notes: During April 2015, Heritage P&C entered into catastrophe reinsurance agreements with Citrus Re. The 2015 notes do not provide coverage for Zephyr for the 2016 hurricane season. The agreements provide for three years of coverage from catastrophic losses caused by named storms, including hurricanes, beginning on June 1, 2015. Heritage P&C pays a periodic premium to Citrus Re during this three-year risk period. Citrus Re issued principal-at-risk variable notes due April 2018 to fund the reinsurance trust account and its obligations to Heritage P&C under the reinsurance agreements. The Class B notes provide $97.5 million of coverage, and the Class C notes provide $30 million of coverage. The Class B and Class C notes provide reinsurance coverage for a sliver of the catastrophe coverage that had previously been provided by the FHCF. The limit of coverage is fully collateralized by a reinsurance trust account for the benefit of Heritage P&C. The maturity date of the notes may be extended up to two additional years to satisfy claims for catastrophic events occurring during the three-year term of the reinsurance agreements.

Layers above the FHCF - Florida program

 

2015 Class A Notes: During April 2015, Heritage P&C entered into catastrophe reinsurance agreements with Citrus Re. The 2015 notes do not provide coverage for Zephyr for the 2016 hurricane season. The agreements provide for three years of coverage from catastrophic losses caused by named storms, including hurricanes, beginning on June 1, 2015. Heritage P&C pays a periodic premium to Citrus Re during this three-year risk period. Citrus Re issued principal-at-risk variable notes due April 2018 to fund the reinsurance trust account and its obligations to Heritage P&C under the reinsurance agreements. The Class A notes provide $150 million of coverage for a layer above the FHCF. The limit of coverage is fully collateralized by a reinsurance trust account for the benefit of Heritage P&C. The maturity date of the notes may be extended up to two additional years to satisfy claims for catastrophic events occurring during the three-year term of the reinsurance agreements.

 

 

2014 Class A Notes: Coverage immediately below and above the 2015 Class A notes is provided by the 2014 reinsurance agreements entered into with Citrus Re. The first contract with Citrus Re provides $150 million of coverage immediately below 2015 Class A, and the second contract provides an additional $50 million of coverage which sits immediately above 2015 Class A. During April 2014, Heritage P&C entered into two catastrophe reinsurance agreements with Citrus Re. The 2014 notes do not provide coverage for Zephyr for the 2016 hurricane season. The agreements provide for three years of coverage from catastrophe losses caused by certain named storms, including hurricanes, beginning on June 1, 2014. The limit of coverage of $200 million is fully collateralized by a reinsurance trust account for the benefit of Heritage P&C. Heritage P&C pays a periodic premium to Citrus Re during this three-year risk period. Citrus Re issued $200 million of principal-at-risk variable notes due April 2017 to fund the reinsurance trust account and its obligations to Heritage P&C under the reinsurance agreements. The maturity date of the notes may be extended up to two additional years to satisfy claims for catastrophic events occurring during the three-year term of the reinsurance agreements.

 

 

Multi-Zonal Layers – The Company purchased additional layers which provide coverage for Florida for a second event and both first and second event coverage for Hawaii. The first event coverage for Hawaii is a counterpart to the Florida-only catastrophe bond layers and FHCF layer. There is a total of $282 million of reinsurance coverage purchased on this basis, with $260 million having a prepaid reinstatement. The multi-zonal occurrence layer provides first and second event coverage of $260 million for Hawaii and second event coverage of $260 million for Florida. A top and drop multi-zonal layer provides first and subsequent event coverage of $22 million for Hawaii and second or subsequent event coverage of $22 million for Florida.

 

 

Aggregate Coverage. In addition to what is described above, much of the reinsurance is structured in a way to provide aggregate coverage. $682 million of limit is structured on this basis. To the extent that this coverage is not fully exhausted in the first catastrophic event, it provides coverage commencing at its reduced retention for second and subsequent events where underlying coverage has been previously exhausted. $460 million has a reinstatement, which is prepaid.

 

For a first catastrophic event striking Florida, our reinsurance program provides coverage for $2 billion of losses and loss adjustment expenses, including our retention, and we are responsible for all losses and loss adjustment expenses in excess of such amount. For a first catastrophic event striking Hawaii, our reinsurance program provides coverage for $1.1 billion of losses and loss adjustment expenses, including our retention, and we are responsible for all losses and loss adjustment expenses in excess of such amount. For subsequent catastrophic events, our total available coverage depends on the magnitude of the first event, as we may have coverage remaining from layers that were not previously fully exhausted. $860 million of limit purchased in 2016 includes a reinstatement, with $825 million being prepaid. In total, we have purchased $3.1 billion of potential reinsurance coverage, including our retention, for multiple catastrophic events. Our ability to access this coverage, however, will be subject to the severity and frequency of such events. Hurricane losses in North Carolina and South Carolina would be covered under the Florida program with

11

 


the exception of the FHCF and the series 2014 and 2015 CAT bonds. Management deemed this reinsurance protection to be sufficient given the level of catastrophe exposure in 2016 for North Carolina and South Carolina.

In placing our 2016-2017 reinsurance program, we sought to capitalize on favorable reinsurance pricing and mitigate uncertainty surrounding the future cost of our reinsurance by negotiating multi-year arrangements. The $727.5 million of aggregate coverage we have purchased from Citrus Re Ltd, which includes the 2014 Class A & B notes, the 2015 Class A, B, and C notes, and the 2016 Class D & E notes extends $200 million until May of 2017, $277.5 million for another two-year period and $250 million for a three-year period. To the extent coverage is all or partially exhausted before the end of three years, it cannot be reinstated. In the aggregate, multi-year coverage from Citrus Re Ltd accounts for approximately 42% of our purchases of private reinsurance for the 2016 hurricane season. The terms of each of the multi-year coverage arrangements described above are subject to adjustment depending on, among other things, the size and composition of our portfolio of insured risks in future periods.

Assuming the reoccurrence of Hurricane Andrew, which is considered to be the most catastrophic single event in Florida’s recorded history, the probable maximum net loss to us in 2016, assuming the reinsurance coverage described above, would be $24.8 million (after tax, net of all reinsurance recoveries and including our retention through Osprey). This loss would have represented 6.9% of our stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2016. We estimate that, based on our portfolio of insured risks as of August 31, 2016, Hurricane Andrew would have represented a catastrophic event likely to occur approximately once every 49 years and would have exhausted approximately 56.6% of our first event expected reinsurance coverage.

For the twelve months ending May 31, 2017, we purchased reinsurance from the following sources: (i) FHCF, (ii) Citrus Re Ltd, (iii) 23 third-party private reinsurers, all of which were rated “A-” or higher by A.M. Best or S&P and (iv) our wholly-owned reinsurance subsidiary, Osprey. Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty SE provides approximately 38% of our third-party reinsurance program, including Citrus Re catastrophe bonds. The chart below lists our third-party reinsurers with A.M. Best and S&P ratings:

 

12

 


Reinsurer

AM Best

S&P

Aeolus Re Ltd

Fully Collateralized

 

American Standard Insurance Company of Wisconsin

A

NR

Amlin AG (Bermuda Branch)

A

A

Aquilo/CatCo

Fronted by AM Best "A+" Paper

 

Aspen Re

A

A

Axis Specialty Limited

A+

A+

Chubb Tempest1

A++

AA

Cincinnati Re

A+

A+

Citrus Re

Fully Collateralized

 

Coriolis Capital (obo Horseshoe Re)

Fully Collateralized

 

DaVinci Re

A

AA-

Everest Reinsurance Company

A+

A+

Fermat Capital Management, LLC

Fully Collateralized

 

Fidelis Insurance Bermuda Limited

A-

NR

General Insurance Corporation of India

A-

NR

Hannover Re (Bermuda) Ltd

A+

AA-

Hiscox Insurance Co (Bermuda) Limited

A

A

Insurance Company of the West

A-

NR

ILS Capital

Fully Collateralized

 

Lancashire Insurance Company Limited

A

A-

Lloyd's

A

A

Markel Bermuda Limited

A

A

Nephila Capital Ltd

Fully Collateralized

 

New India

A-

NR

Odyssey Reinsurance Company

A

A-

Osprey Re

Fully Collateralized

 

Partner Reinsurance Co Ltd

A

A+

Pillar Capital

Fully Collateralized

 

Qatar Reinsurance Company Limited

A

A

Renaissance Reinsurance Limited

A+

AA-

Satec

Fronted by AM Best "A+" Paper

 

Securis

Fully Collateralized

 

Swiss Reinsurance America Corporation

A+

AA-

Taiping Reinsurance Co, Ltd.

A

A

Tokio Millennium Re AG

A++

A+

Transatlantic Reinsurance Company

A

A+

XL Catlin

A

A+

Investments

Our investments are managed by seven third-party asset managers. We have designed our investment policy to provide a balance between current yield, conservation of capital and the liquidity requirements of our operations. As such, our investable assets are primarily held in cash and bonds with relatively short durations. Our investment policy sets guidelines that provide for a well-diversified investment portfolio that is compliant with Florida and Hawaii statutes that emphasizes quality and preservation of capital. The policy limits investments in common and preferred stocks to 15% of each of our insurance company affiliates’ admitted assets, with no more than 10% in either class. Our bond portfolio must have a minimum weighted average portfolio quality of A, with only $1 million invested in below investment grade bonds. No more than 2% of admitted assets can be invested in any one issuer, excluding government-related securities. Investments in commercial mortgages cannot exceed 10% of admitted assets. Prohibited investments include short sales and margin purchases, oil, gas, mineral or other types of leases, speculative uses of futures and options, unrated corporate securities, non-US denominated securities, convertible securities high risk CMO instruments, repurchase agreements, securities lending transactions and speculative foreign currency valuation transactions. Our investment policy, which may change from time to time, is approved by our Investment Committee and is reviewed on a regular basis in order to ensure that our investment policy evolves in response to changes in the financial market. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016 included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

As of December 31, 2016, we held $105.8 million in cash and cash equivalents and $603 million in securities, which were comprised of $571 million in bonds, $14.5 million in preferred stocks and $17.5 million in common stock.

Government Regulation

The insurance industry is extensively regulated. Our insurance company subsidiaries are subject to the laws and regulations of the states in which they do business. The insurance regulatory statutes and rules provide for regulation of virtually all aspects of the business of insurance companies. The states in which we conduct business, like many states, have adopted several model laws and

13

 


regulations as promulgated by the NAIC. State statutes and administrative rules generally require each insurance company that is part of a holding company group to register with the department of insurance in its state of domicile and to furnish information concerning the operations of the companies within the holding company system which may materially affect the operations, management or financial condition of the insurers within the group. As part of its registration, each insurance company must identify material agreements, relationships and transactions with affiliates, including without limitation loans, investments, asset transfers, transactions outside of the ordinary course of business, certain management, service, and cost sharing agreements, reinsurance transactions, dividends and consolidated tax allocation agreements. In some instances, individual state insurance laws and regulations are even more stringent that those promulgated by the NAIC or other states.

We are subject to regulations administered by a department of insurance in each state in which we do business. These regulations relate to, among other things:

 

the content and timing of required notices and other policyholder information;

 

the amount of premiums the insurer may assume or write in relation to its surplus (writing ratios);

 

the amount and nature of reinsurance a company is required to purchase;

 

participation in guaranty funds and other statutorily created markets or organizations;

 

business operations and claims practices;

 

approval of policy forms and premium rates;

 

standards of solvency, including risk-based capital measurements;

 

licensing of insurers and their products;

 

restrictions on the nature, quality and concentration of investments;

 

restrictions on the ability of insurance company subsidiaries to pay dividends to insurance holding companies;

 

restrictions on transactions between insurance companies and their affiliates;

 

restrictions on the size of risks insurable under a single policy;

 

requiring deposits for the benefit of policyholders;

 

requiring certain methods of accounting;

 

periodic examinations of our operations and finances;

 

the form and content of records of financial condition required to be filed; and

 

requiring reserves.

The State of Florida imposed certain additional solvency related requirements as a condition of receiving a certificate of authority for our Florida insurance company subsidiary.  This includes a requirement for a higher level of statutory surplus ($18 million), required pre-approval for any dividends paid by our Florida insurance company subsidiary until July 31, 2017, and limitations of dividends paid by our parent company prior to July 31, 2015.  Finally, we are subject to consent orders setting conditions for FLOIR’s approval of the Citizens assumption transactions in which we have participated. We are required by consent order to comply with the assumption agreements entered into with Citizens at the time of each assumption transaction, which requires that for the assumed policies, we must offer to renew each policy for a minimum of three years. We are in full compliance with all consent orders issued with regard to Citizens’ depopulation program.

State regulators where we are and may become licensed and offer insurance products conduct periodic examinations of the affairs of insurance companies and require the filing of annual and other reports relating to financial condition, holding company issues and other matters. These regulatory authorities also conduct periodic examinations into insurers’ business practices. Additionally, we are subject to assessments levied by governmental and quasi-governmental entities from the states in which we conduct business.

Employees

As of December 31, 2016, we had 311 employees, 308 of whom are full time and three part time employees.  We have approximately 30 active consultants. We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreement and have not experienced any work stoppages or strikes as a result of labor disputes. We consider relations with our employees to be satisfactory.

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Available Information

Heritage Insurance Holdings Inc.’s, Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) are made available, free of charge, on or through the “Investor Relations” portion of our Internet website https://heritagepci.com. Reports filed with or furnished to the SEC will also be available as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC and are available over the internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

 


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Item 1A.

Risk Factors

Set forth below are certain risk factors that could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. You should carefully read the following risk factors, together with the financial statements, related notes and other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our business, financial condition and operating results may suffer if any of the following risks are realized. If any of these risks or uncertainties occur, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that contain risks and uncertainties. Please refer to the discussion of “Forward-Looking Statements” of this Annual Report in connection with your consideration of the risk factors and other important factors that may affect future results described herein.

Risks Related to Our Business

We have a limited operating history, and our business and future prospects are difficult to evaluate.

We began operations in August 2012 and wrote our first policy in November 2012. Due to our limited operating history, our ability to execute our business strategy is materially uncertain and our operations and prospects are subject to all risks inherent in a developing business enterprise. Our limited operating history also makes it difficult to evaluate our long term commercial viability. As a new business, we must work to establish and develop successful operating procedures, hire staff, tailor and fine-tune our information management and other systems, maintain adequate control of our expenses, develop business relationships, implement our marketing strategies (and adapt and modify them as needed), establish a positive image and reputation in the community, and take any other steps necessary to conduct our business. As a result of these challenges, it is possible that we may not be successful in implementing our business strategy or completing the development of the infrastructure necessary to expand our business.

Our loss reserves are estimates and may be inadequate to cover our actual liability for losses, causing our results of operations to be adversely affected.

We maintain reserves to cover our estimated ultimate liabilities for losses and loss adjustment expenses, also referred to as loss reserves. We have a limited operating history and a limited loss history which may negatively impact our ability to accurately establish loss reserves. Our current loss reserves are based primarily on our historical data and statistical projections of what we believe the resolution and administration of claims will cost based on facts and circumstances then known to us. As a company with limited operating history, our claims experience and our experience with the risks related to certain claims is inherently limited. We use company historical data to the extent it is available and rely on industry historical data which may not be indicative of future periods. As a result, our projections and our estimates may be inaccurate, which in turn may cause our actual losses to exceed our loss reserves. If our actual losses exceed our loss reserves, our financial results, our ability to expand our business and to compete in the property and casualty insurance industry may be negatively affected.

Factors that affect unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses include the estimates made on a claim-by-claim basis known as “case reserves” coupled with bulk estimates known as “incurred but not yet reported” (or “IBNR”). Periodic estimates by management of the ultimate costs required to resolve all claims are based on our analysis of historical data and estimations of the impact of numerous factors such as (i) per claim information, (ii) industry and company historical loss experience and development patterns, (iii) legislative enactments, judicial decisions, legal developments in the awarding of damages and changes in political attitudes, and (iv) trends in general economic conditions, including the effects of inflation. Management revises its estimates based on the results of its analysis. This process assumes that past experience, adjusted for the effects of current developments and anticipated trends, is an appropriate basis for estimating the ultimate resolution of all claims. There is no precise method for subsequently evaluating the impact of any specific factor on the adequacy of the reserves because the eventual redundancy or deficiency is affected by multiple factors.

Because of the inherent uncertainties in the reserving process, we cannot be certain that our reserves will be adequate to cover our actual losses and loss adjustment expenses. If our reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses are less than actual losses and loss adjustment expenses, we will be required to increase our reserves with a corresponding reduction in our net income in the period in which the deficiency is identified. Future loss experience substantially in excess of our reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses could substantially harm our results of operations and financial condition.

Because a large portion of our insurance business was conducted in Florida and Hawaii as of December 31, 2016, any single catastrophic event, or a series of such events, or other condition affecting losses in Florida or Hawaii could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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As of December 31, 2016, 98% of our premium in force related to business in Florida and Hawaii.  The distribution of our policies is generally consistent with that of the population in Florida and Hawaii and is therefore more concentrated in densely-populated coastal areas. A single catastrophic event, or a series of such events, destructive weather pattern, general economic trend, regulatory development or other condition specifically affecting Florida or Hawaii, particularly the more densely populated areas of those states, could have a disproportionately adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. While we actively manage our exposure to catastrophic events through our underwriting process and the purchase of reinsurance, the fact that our business is concentrated in Florida and Hawaii subjects us to increased exposure to certain catastrophic events and destructive weather patterns such as hurricanes, tropical storms and tornadoes. Changes in the prevailing regulatory, legal, economic, political, demographic and competitive environment, and other conditions in the states in which we conduct business could also make it less attractive for us to do business and would have a more pronounced effect on our business than it would on other insurance companies that are more geographically diversified than we are. Since our business is concentrated in this manner, the occurrence of one or more catastrophic events or other conditions affecting losses in Florida and Hawaii could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have exposure to unpredictable catastrophes, which can materially and adversely affect our financial results.

We write insurance policies that cover homeowners, condominium owners and commercial residential buildings for losses that result from, among other things, catastrophes. We are therefore subject to losses, including claims under policies we have assumed or written, arising out of catastrophes that may have a significant effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. A significant catastrophe, or a series of catastrophes, could also have an adverse effect on our reinsurers. Catastrophes can be caused by various events, including hurricanes, tropical storms, tornadoes, earthquakes, hailstorms, explosions, power outages, fires and by man-made events, such as terrorist attacks. The incidence and severity of catastrophes are inherently unpredictable. The extent of losses from a catastrophe is a function of both the total amount of insured exposure in the area affected and the severity of the event. Our policyholders are currently concentrated in Florida and Hawaii, which are especially subject to adverse weather conditions such as hurricanes and tropical storms. Therefore, although we attempt to manage our exposure to catastrophes through our underwriting process and the purchase of reinsurance protection, an especially severe catastrophe or series of catastrophes could exceed our reinsurance protection and may have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition. In total, for the period from June 1, 2016 through May 31, 2017, we have purchased $3 billion of reinsurance coverage, including our retention, for multiple catastrophic events. Our ability to access this coverage, however, is subject to the severity and frequency of such events. We may experience significant losses and loss adjustment expenses in excess of our retention.

Our results of operations may fluctuate significantly based on industry factors.

The insurance business historically has been a cyclical industry characterized by periods of intense price competition due to excess underwriting capacity, as well as periods when shortages of capacity permitted an increase in pricing. As premium levels increase, there may be new entrants to the market, which could then lead to increased competition, a significant reduction in premium rates, less favorable policy terms and fewer opportunities to underwrite insurance risks, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. In addition to these considerations, changes in the frequency and severity of losses suffered by insureds and insurers, including changes resulting from multiple and/or catastrophic hurricanes, may affect the cycles of the insurance business significantly. We cannot predict whether market conditions will improve, remain constant or deteriorate. Negative market conditions may impair our ability to write insurance at rates that we consider appropriate relative to the risk assumed. If we cannot write insurance at appropriate rates, our business would be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, the uncertainties inherent in the reserving process, together with the potential for unforeseen developments, including changes in laws and the prevailing interpretation of policy terms, may result in losses and loss adjustment expenses materially different from the reserves initially established. Changes to prior year reserves will affect current underwriting results by increasing net income if the prior year reserves prove to be redundant or by decreasing net income if the prior year reserves prove to be insufficient. We are not allowed to record contingency reserves to account for expected future losses. As a result, we expect volatility in operating results in periods in which significant loss events occur because generally accepted accounting principles do not permit insurers or reinsurers to reserve for loss events until they have occurred and are expected to give rise to a claim. We anticipate that claims arising from future events may require the establishment of substantial reserves from time to time.

Our results of operations have shifted from our historic participation in the Citizens depopulation program to an expectation that we will not continue to participate in the program.

We may not be able to collect reinsurance amounts due to us from the reinsurers with which we have contracted.

Reinsurance is a method of transferring part of an insurance company’s risk under an insurance policy to another insurance company. To the extent that our reinsurers are unable to meet the obligations they assume under our reinsurance agreements, we

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remain liable for the entire insured loss. We use reinsurance arrangements to limit and manage the amount of risk we retain, to stabilize our underwriting results and to increase our underwriting capacity. Our ability to recover amounts due from reinsurers under the reinsurance treaties we currently have in effect is subject to the reinsurance company’s ability and willingness to pay and to meet its obligations to us. We attempt to select financially strong reinsurers with an A.M. Best or S&P rating of “A-” or better or we require the reinsurer to fully collateralize its exposure. While we monitor from time to time their financial condition, we also rely on our reinsurance broker and rating agencies in evaluating our reinsurers’ ability to meet their obligations to us.

Our reinsurance coverage in any given year may be concentrated with one or a limited group of reinsurers. For the twelve months ending May 31, 2017, Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty SE provided approximately 18.9% of our third-party reinsurance coverage, including Citrus Re Catastrophe Bonds, which are fully collateralized. Any failure on the part of any one reinsurance company to meet its obligations to us could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

All residential insurance companies that write business in Florida, including us, are required to obtain reinsurance through FHCF, and this coverage comprises a substantial portion of our reinsurance program for our Florida insured properties. The limit and retention of the FHCF coverage is subject to upward or downward adjustment based on, among other things, submitted exposures to FHCF by all participants. We have purchased private reinsurance alongside our FHCF layer to fill in gaps in coverage that may result from the adjustment of the limit or retention of our FHCF coverage; however, such reinsurance would not cover any losses we may incur as a result of FHCF’s inability to pay the full amount of our claims. If a catastrophic event occurs in Florida, FHCF may not have sufficient funds to pay all of its claims from insurance companies in full or in a timely manner. This could result in significant financial, legal and operational challenges to our Company. In the event of a catastrophic loss, FHCF’s ability to pay may be dependent upon its ability to issue bonds in amounts that would be required to meet its reinsurance obligations. There can be no assurance that FHCF will be able to do this. While we believe FHCF currently has adequate capital and financing capacity to meet its reinsurance obligations, there can be no assurance that it will be able to meet its obligations in the future, and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.

Reinsurance coverage may not be available to us in the future at commercially reasonable rates or at all.

The cost of reinsurance is subject to prevailing market conditions beyond our control such as the amount of capital in the reinsurance market, as well as the frequency and magnitude of natural and man-made catastrophes. We cannot be assured that reinsurance will remain continuously available to us in the amounts we consider sufficient and at prices acceptable to us. As a result, we may determine to increase the amount of risk we retain or look for other alternatives to reinsurance, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Increased competition, competitive pressures, industry developments and market conditions could affect the growth of our business and adversely impact our financial results.

The property and casualty insurance industry in the states in which we do business is cyclical and, during times of increased capacity, highly competitive. We compete not only with other stock companies, but also with state governmental insurance entities, mutual companies, other underwriting organizations and alternative risk sharing mechanisms. Our principal lines of business are written by numerous other insurance companies. Competition for any one account may come from very large, well-established national companies, smaller regional companies, other specialty insurers in our field and other companies that write insurance. Some of these competitors have greater financial resources, larger agency networks and greater name recognition than we do. We compete for business not only on the basis of price, but also on the basis of financial strength, types of coverages offered, and availability of coverage desired by customers, commission structure and quality of service. We may have difficulty continuing to compete successfully on any of these bases in the future. Competitive pressures coupled with market conditions may affect our rate of premium growth and financial results.

In addition, industry developments could further increase competition in our industry. These developments could include:

 

an influx of new capital in the marketplace as existing companies attempt to expand their businesses and new companies attempt to enter the insurance business as a result of better premium pricing and/or policy terms;

 

an increase in programs in which state-sponsored entities provide property insurance in catastrophe-prone areas;

 

changes in state regulatory climates; and

 

the passage of federal proposals for an optional federal charter that would allow some competing insurers to operate under regulations different or less stringent than those applicable to us.

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These developments and others could make the property and casualty insurance marketplace more competitive by increasing the supply of insurance available. If competition limits our ability to write new business at adequate rates, our future results of operations would be adversely affected.

Our success depends on our ability to accurately price the risks we underwrite.

Our results of operations and financial condition depend on our ability to underwrite and set premium rates accurately for a wide variety of risks. Rate adequacy is necessary to generate sufficient premiums to pay losses, loss adjustment expenses, reinsurance costs and underwriting expenses and to earn a profit. In order to price our products accurately, we must collect and properly analyze a substantial amount of data; develop, test and apply appropriate rating formulas; closely monitor and timely recognize changes in trends; and project both severity and frequency of losses with reasonable accuracy. Our ability to successfully perform these tasks, and as a result price our products accurately, is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, some of which are outside our control, including:

 

the availability of sufficient reliable data and our ability to properly analyze available data;

 

regulatory delays in approving filed rate changes;

 

the uncertainties that inherently characterize estimates and assumptions;

 

our selection and application of appropriate rating and pricing techniques;

 

changes in legal standards, claim resolution practices, and restoration costs; and

 

legislatively imposed consumer initiatives.

In addition, we could underprice risks, which would negatively affect our profit margins. We could also overprice risks, which could reduce the number of policies we write and our competitiveness. In either event, our profitability could be materially and adversely affected.

The inherent uncertainty of models and our reliance on such models as a tool to evaluate risk may have an adverse effect on our financial results.

We license analytic and modeling software from third parties to facilitate our pricing, assess our risk exposure and determine our reinsurance needs. Given the inherent uncertainty of modeling techniques and the application of such techniques, these models and databases may not accurately address the emergence of a variety of matters which might impact our exposure to losses. Accordingly, these models may understate the exposures we are assuming and our financial results may be adversely impacted, perhaps significantly.

The failure of our claims department to effectively manage or remediate claims could adversely affect our insurance business, financial results and capital requirements.

We rely on our claims department and any outsourced claims resources to facilitate and oversee the claims adjustment process for our policyholders. Many factors could affect the ability of our claims department to effectively manage claims by our policyholders, including:

 

the accuracy of our adjusters as they make their assessments and submit their estimates of damages;

 

the training, background and experience of our claims representatives;

 

the ability of our claims department to ensure consistent claims handling;

 

the ability of our claims department to translate the information provided by adjusters into acceptable claims resolutions; and

 

the ability of our claims department to maintain and update its claims handling procedures and systems as they evolve over time based on claims and geographical trends in claims reporting.

Any failure to effectively manage the claims adjustment process, including failure to pay claims accurately, could lead to material litigation, undermine our reputation in the marketplace, impair our corporate image and negatively affect our financial results.

Additionally, in the final stage of the claims process for Florida claims, we leverage CAN’s vendor network to provide repair and remediation services to the policyholder. If such services are not performed properly, we may face liability. Although we maintain professional liability insurance to cover losses arising from our repair and remediation services, there can be no assurances that such

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coverage is adequate. In addition, our failure to timely and properly remediate claims, or the perception of such failure, may damage our reputation and adversely affect our ability to renew existing policies or write new policies.

If actual renewals of our existing contracts do not meet expectations, our premiums written in future years and our future results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our insurance policies are written for a one-year term. We make assumptions about the renewal of our prior year’s contracts, including for purposes of determining the amount of reinsurance we purchase. If actual renewals do not meet expectations or if we choose not to write on a renewal basis because of pricing conditions, our premiums written in future years and our future operations would be materially adversely affected, and we may purchase reinsurance beyond what we believe is the most appropriate level.

We may not be able to effectively execute our growth strategy.

We have and intend to continue to invest significant time and resources to develop and market geographic expansion, new lines of business and/or products and services and we may not achieve the return on our investment that we expect. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of geographic expansion, new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting customer preferences may also impact the successful implementation of our business plan. Such external factors and requirements may increase our costs and potentially affect the speed with which we will be able to pursue new market opportunities. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in bringing new insurance products or geographic expansion to our marketplace. Additionally, any geographic expansion, new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.  

Our growth strategy involves expansion of our business to states outside of our existing markets. Geographic diversification may be hindered by the fact that we have a limited operating history, and we may be unable to satisfy requirements imposed by state regulators and other third parties.

If we are unable to expand our business because our capital must be used to pay greater than anticipated claims, our financial results may suffer. Further, we may require additional capital in the future which may not be available or may only be available on unfavorable terms.

Our future growth and future capital requirements will depend on our ability to expand the number of insurance policies we write, to expand the kinds of insurance products we offer and to expand the geographic markets in which we do business, all balanced by the business risks we choose to assume and cede. All of these growth initiatives require capital. Our existing sources of funds include possible sales of common or preferred stock, incurring debt and our earnings from operations and investments. Unexpected catastrophic events in our coverage areas, such as the hurricanes, may result in greater claims losses than anticipated, which could require us to limit or halt our growth while we redeploy our capital to pay these unanticipated claims unless we are able to raise additional capital.

To the extent that our present capital is insufficient to meet future operating requirements or to cover losses, we may need to raise additional funds through financings or curtail our growth. Based on our current operating plan, we believe that our current capital together with our anticipated retained income will support our operations. However, we cannot provide any assurance in that regard, since many factors will affect the amount and timing of our capital needs, including our growth and profitability, the availability and cost of reinsurance, as well as possible acquisition opportunities, market disruptions and other unforeseeable developments. If we require additional capital, it is possible that equity or debt financing may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. In the case of equity financings, dilution to our stockholders could result, and in any case such securities may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of existing stockholders. If we cannot obtain adequate capital on favorable terms or at all, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Heritage Insurance depends on the ability of its subsidiaries to generate and transfer funds to meet its debt obligations.

Heritage Insurance does not have significant revenue generating operations of its own. Our ability to make scheduled payments on our debt obligations depends on the financial condition and operating performance of our subsidiaries. If the funds we receive from our subsidiaries, some of which are subject to regulatory restrictions on the payment of distributions, are insufficient to meet our debt obligations, we may be required to raise funds through the issuance of additional debt or equity securities, reduce or suspend dividend payments, or sell assets.

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Our information technology systems, or those of our key service providers, may fail or suffer a loss of security which could adversely affect our business.

Our insurance business is highly dependent upon the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our computer and data processing systems. We rely on these systems to perform actuarial and other modeling functions necessary for writing business, as well as to handle our policy administration process (i.e., handling and adjusting claims, the printing and mailing of our policies, endorsements, renewal notices, etc.). The successful operation of our systems depends on a continuous supply of electricity. The failure of these systems or disruption in the supply of electricity could interrupt our operations and result in a material adverse effect on our business.

The development and expansion of our insurance business is dependent upon the successful development and implementation of advanced technology, including modeling, underwriting and information technology systems. Because we intend to expand our business by writing additional voluntary policies, expansion to new geographic areas and entering into new lines of business, we are enhancing our information technology systems to handle and process an increased volume of policies. Additionally, we have engaged service providers to provide us with policy and other administration services for certain of our policies and we intend to continue to utilize third party systems as our policy count grows. The failure of any of these systems to function as planned could slow our growth and adversely affect our future business volume and results of operations. In addition, we have licensed certain systems and data from third parties. We cannot be certain that we will have access to these, or comparable systems, or that our technology or applications will continue to operate as intended. Moreover, we cannot be certain that we would be able to replace these systems without slowing our underwriting response time. A major defect or failure in our internal controls or information technology systems could result in management distraction, harm to our reputation, a loss or delay of revenues or increased expense.

In addition, a security breach of our computer systems could damage our reputation or result in liability. We retain confidential business and policyholder information in our computer systems. We may be required to spend significant capital and other resources to protect against security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches. It is critical that our facilities and infrastructure remain secure. Despite the implementation of security measures, our infrastructure may be vulnerable to physical break-ins, computer viruses, programming errors, attacks by third parties or similar disruptive problems. In addition, we could be subject to liability if hackers were able to penetrate our network security or otherwise misappropriate confidential information.

The development and implementation of new technologies will require an additional investment of our capital resources in the future.

Frequent technological changes, new products and services and evolving industry standards are all influencing the insurance business. We believe that the development and implementation of new technologies will require additional investment of our capital resources in the future. We have not determined, however, the amount of resources and the time that this development and implementation may require, which may result in short-term, unexpected interruptions to our business, or may result in a competitive disadvantage in price and/or efficiency, as we endeavor to develop or implement new technologies.

We do not have significant redundancy in our operations.

We conduct our business primarily from offices located in western and southern Florida and Hawaii where hurricanes could damage our facilities or interrupt our power supply. The loss or significant impairment of functionality in these facilities for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business, as we do not have significant redundancies to replace our facilities if functionality is impaired. We contract with a third party vendor to maintain complete daily backups of our systems, however, we have not fully tested our plan to recover data in the event of a disaster.

We may be unable to attract and retain qualified employees.

We depend on our ability to attract and retain experienced underwriting talent and other skilled employees who are knowledgeable about our business. If the quality of our underwriters and other personnel decreases, we may be unable to maintain our current competitive position in the specialized markets in which we operate and be unable to expand our operations, which could adversely affect our results.

The loss of, or failure to attract, key personnel could have a more significant impact on our business as compared to some of our competitors that are larger or have longer operating histories. We believe that our ability to grow and fully execute our business plan will depend in large part on our ability to attract and retain additional skilled and qualified personnel and to expand, train and manage our employees. We may not be successful in doing so, because the competition for experienced personnel in the insurance industry is intense.

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We are dependent on key executives, the loss of whom could adversely affect our business.

Our future success depends to a significant extent on the efforts of our senior management. We believe there are only a limited number of available and qualified executives with substantial experience in our industry. Accordingly, the loss of the services of one or more of the members of our senior management could delay or prevent us from fully implementing our business strategy and, consequently, significantly and negatively affect our business.

Currently, we only maintain key man life insurance with respect to Bruce Lucas, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. If any other member of senior management dies or becomes incapacitated, or leaves the company to pursue employment opportunities elsewhere, we would be solely responsible for locating an adequate replacement for such senior management and for bearing any related cost. To the extent that we are unable to locate an adequate replacement or are unable to do so within a reasonable period of time, our business may be significantly and negatively affected.

Our financial results may be negatively affected by the fact that a portion of our income is generated by the investment of our company’s capital, premiums and loss reserves.

A portion of our income is, and likely will continue to be, generated by the investment of our capital, premiums and loss reserves. The amount of income so generated is a function of our investment policy, available investment opportunities and the amount of available cash invested. We are also constrained by investment limitations required by our state insurance regulators. At December 31, 2016, approximately 85% of our total investments, cash and cash equivalents was invested in fixed-maturity and equity securities with the balance in cash and cash equivalents. We may, under certain circumstances, be required to liquidate our investments in securities at prices below book value, which may adversely affect our financial results. We currently hold all of our cash in accounts with four financial institutions and, as a result of this concentration, a portion of the balances in such accounts exceeds the FDIC insurance limits. While we monitor and adjust the balances in our accounts as appropriate, these balances could be impacted if any of these financial institutions fail and could be subject to other adverse conditions in the financial markets.

We may alter our investment policy to accept higher levels of risk with the expectation of higher returns. Fluctuating interest rates and other economic factors make it impossible to estimate accurately the amount of investment income that will be realized. In fact, we may realize losses on our investments.

Our inability to maintain our financial stability rating may have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, the marketability of our product offerings, and our liquidity, operating results and financial condition.

Financial stability ratings are important factors in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies and can have a significant effect on an insurance company’s business. Many insurance buyers, agents, brokers and secured lenders use the ratings assigned by rating agencies to assist them in assessing the financial stability and overall quality of the companies from which they are considering purchasing insurance or in determining the financial stability of the company that provides insurance. Each of our insurance companies currently maintain a Demotech rating of “A” (“Exceptional”) or higher. These financial stability ratings provide an objective baseline for assessing solvency and should not be interpreted as (and are not intended to serve as) an assessment of, a recommendation to buy, sell, or hold, any securities of an insurance company or its parent holding company, including shares of our common stock.

On an ongoing basis, rating agencies review the financial performance and condition of insurers and can downgrade or change the outlook on an insurer’s ratings due to, for example, a change in an insurer’s statutory capital, a reduced confidence in management or a host of other considerations that may or may not be under the insurer’s control. All ratings are subject to continuous review; therefore, the retention of these ratings cannot be assured. A downgrade in any of these ratings could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, the marketability of our product offerings and our ability to grow in the marketplace.

The effects of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business are uncertain.

Loss frequency and severity in the property and casualty insurance industry in general and for our multi-peril personal lines business has continued to increase in recent years, principally driven by litigation and assignment of benefits. In addition, many legal actions and proceedings have been brought on behalf of classes of complainants, which can increase the size of judgments. The propensity of policyholders and third party claimants to litigate and the willingness of courts to expand causes of loss and the size of awards may render the loss reserves of our insurance subsidiaries inadequate for current and future losses. In addition, as industry practices and social and other environmental conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. These issues may adversely affect our business by either extending coverage beyond our underwriting intent or by increasing the number or size of claims. In some instances, these changes may not become apparent until sometime after we have issued insurance policies that are affected by the changes. As a result, the full extent of liability under our insurance policies may not be known at the time such policies are issued or renewed, and our financial position and results of operations may be adversely affected.

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The failure of the risk mitigation strategies we utilize could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

We utilize a number of strategies to mitigate our risk exposure including:

 

employing proper underwriting procedures;

 

carefully evaluating the terms and conditions of our policies;

 

geographic diversification; and

 

ceding insurance risk to reinsurance companies.

However, there are inherent limitations in all of these tactics. No assurance can be given that an event or series of unanticipated events will not result in loss levels which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Lack of effectiveness of exclusions and other loss limitation methods in the insurance policies we assume or write could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or our results of operations.

Various provisions of our policies, such as limitations or exclusions from coverage which are designed to limit our risks, may not be enforceable in the manner we intend. In addition, the policies we issue contain conditions requiring the prompt reporting of claims to us and our right to decline coverage in the event of a violation of that condition. While our insurance product exclusions and limitations reduce the loss exposure to us and help eliminate known exposures to certain risks, it is possible that a court or regulatory authority could nullify or void an exclusion or limitation, or legislation could be enacted modifying or barring the use of such endorsements and limitations in a way that would adversely affect our loss experience, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

We rely on independent agents to write voluntary insurance policies for us, and if we are not able to attract and retain independent agents, our revenues would be negatively affected.

We write voluntary personal and commercial insurance policies through a network of independent agents. Of our network of approximately 1,800 Florida independent agents, approximately 40% are affiliated with nine large agency networks with which we have entered into master agency agreements. Of our network of approximately 75 Hawaii independent agents, approximately 60% are affiliated with three large multi-producer agencies.  As of December 31, 2016, voluntary policies written through independent agents, including the policies we acquired from SSIC, constituted approximately 47.2% of our total policies in force and represented approximately $249 million in annualized premiums. Our strategic focus is to grow the number of voluntary policies throughout the states in which we are licensed, which will further increase our reliance on our network of independent agents. In fact, in the future, we may rely on independent agents to be the primary source for our property insurance policies. If any of our independent agents cease writing policies for us, or if any of our master agency agreements are terminated, we may suffer a reduction in the amount of products we are able to sell, which would negatively impact our results.

Many of our competitors also rely on independent agents. As a result, we must compete with other insurers for independent agents’ business. Our competitors may offer a greater variety of insurance products, lower premiums for insurance coverage, or higher commissions to their agents. If our products, pricing and commissions do not remain competitive, we may find it more difficult to attract business from independent agents to sell our products.

Changing climate conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, profitability or cash flows.

Climate change, to the extent it produces extreme changes in temperatures and changes in weather patterns, could affect the frequency or severity of weather events. Further, it could reduce the affordability and availability of personal residential insurance, which could have an effect on pricing. Changes in weather patterns could also affect the frequency and severity of other natural catastrophe events to which we may be exposed.

If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock may be negatively affected.

As a public company, we are required to maintain internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley

23

 


Act”) requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and, provide a management report on the internal controls over financial reporting.

We have designed and implemented the internal controls over financial reporting in compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requirements. In the future, we may discover areas of our internal controls that need improvement. If we or our independent registered public accounting firm discover a material weakness, the disclosure of that fact, even if quickly remediated, could reduce the market’s confidence in our financial statements and harm our stock price. We may not be able to effectively and timely implement necessary control changes and employee training to ensure continued compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other regulatory and reporting requirements. If we fail to maintain effective internal controls, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny and sanctions and investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports.

We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure and other requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we currently and may in the future take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to our internal control over financial reporting, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We may take advantage of these provisions for up to five years from our initial public offering or such earlier time that we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We would cease to be an “emerging growth company” upon the earliest to occur of: (i) the last day of the year in which we have more than $1 billion in annual revenues; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities; (iii) the issuance, in any three-year period, by our company of more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt securities held by non-affiliates; and (iv) the last day of the year ending after the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced reporting and other burdens. To the extent we take advantage of any of the reduced reporting burdens in this annual report or in future filings, the information that we provide our security holders may be different than you might get from other public companies in which you hold equity interests. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an “emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have chosen to “opt-out” of such extended transition period, however, and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision to opt-out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.

Risks Related to Regulation of our Insurance Operations

We are subject to extensive regulation which may reduce our profitability or limit our growth. Moreover, if we fail to comply with these regulations, we may be subject to penalties, including fines and suspensions, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to extensive state regulation. Our insurance company affiliates are subject to supervision and regulation that is primarily designed to protect our policyholders rather than our stockholders, and such regulation is imposed by both states in which we are domiciled and the states in which they do business. These regulations relate to, among other things, the approval of policy forms and premium rates, our conduct in the marketplace, our compliance with solvency and financial reporting requirements, transactions with our affiliates, and limitations on the amount of business we can write, the amount of dividends we can pay to stockholders, and the types of investments we can make. Insurance holding company regulations generally provide that transactions between an insurance company and its affiliates must be fair and reasonable, and must be clearly and accurately disclosed in the records of the respective parties, with expenses and payments allocated between the parties in accordance with customary accounting practices. Many types of transactions between an insurance company and its affiliates, such as transfers of assets, loans, reinsurance agreements, service agreements, certain dividend payments by the insurance company and certain other material transactions, may be subject to prior approval by, or prior notice to, state regulatory authorities. If we are unable to obtain the requisite prior approval for a specific transaction, we would be precluded from taking the action, which could adversely affect our operations. These regulatory requirements may adversely affect or inhibit our ability to achieve some or all of our business objectives. In addition, regulatory

24

 


authorities also may conduct periodic examinations into insurers’ business practices. These reviews may reveal deficiencies in our insurance operations or differences between our interpretations of regulatory requirements and those of the regulators.

State insurance regulations also frequently impose notice or approval requirements for the acquisition of specified levels of ownership in the insurance company or insurance holding company. For example, Florida law requires that a person may not, individually or in conjunction with any affiliated person of such person, acquire directly or indirectly, conclude a tender offer or exchange offer for, enter into any agreement to exchange securities for, or otherwise finally acquire 5% or more of the outstanding voting securities of a Florida domiciled stock insurer or of a controlling company, unless it is in compliance with certain notice and approval requirements. Such restriction may inhibit our ability to grow our business or achieve our business objectives.

Further, regulatory authorities have relatively broad discretion to deny or revoke licenses for various reasons, including the violation of regulations. In some instances, we follow practices based on our interpretations of regulations or practices that we believe may be generally followed by the industry. These practices may turn out to be different from the interpretations of regulatory authorities. If we do not have the requisite licenses and approvals or do not comply with applicable regulatory requirements, insurance regulatory authorities could preclude or temporarily suspend us from carrying on some or all of our activities or otherwise penalize us. This could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

Heritage P&C is subject to additional regulation imposed by consent orders entered into with FLOIR in connection with our formation.

In addition to compliance with statutes and regulations, Florida routinely places additional restrictions on new insurers as a condition of receiving their certificate of authority. These restrictions are typically memorialized in a consent order entered into between FLOIR and the insurer applying for a certificate of authority. We are subject to such a consent order. We have, in certain cases, agreed to higher or more stringent restrictions than are otherwise required under Florida law. The material restrictions we have agreed to include:

 

Florida law requires a residential property writer to maintain surplus of the greater of $15 million or 10% of its liabilities. Pursuant the consent order, we agreed to establish a minimum capital and surplus of $18 million.

 

Florida law restricts the ratio of premiums written to policyholder surplus to 10 to 1 on a gross basis and 4 to 1 on a net of reinsurance basis. Pursuant to the consent order, we agreed to not exceed the projected premiums in the plan of operation submitted with our original application for licensure without the prior written approval of FLOIR during 2012, 2013 and 2014. As part of the FLOIR approval process for the various Citizens assumption transactions in which we have participated, we have received approval to exceed these projected premiums.

 

Florida law places no restrictions on the parent of an insurer, or other upstream entities, with regard to the payment of dividends. Pursuant to the consent order, we agreed to not make any distributions to stockholders prior to July 31, 2015, except such distributions as are required to offset stockholders’ tax obligations resulting from the ownership of our equity or such distributions as may be approved by FLOIR in advance and in writing.

 

Florida law allows an insurer to pay certain dividends to stockholders without approval of FLOIR. Pursuant to the consent order, we agreed that, until July 31, 2017, Heritage P&C would pay only those dividends that have been approved in advance and in writing by FLOIR.

In addition, we are subject to several consent orders setting conditions upon FLOIR’s approval of the various Citizens assumption transactions in which we have participated. For example, beginning with our June 2013 assumption transaction, we are required to offer to renew each assumed policy for a minimum of three years and limit rate increases for wind only policies where renewals are capped at 100% to 110% of the previous expiring Heritage premium.  

In the event we are unable to comply with the additional regulation imposed by these consent orders, it may adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

Changes in regulation may reduce our profitability and limit our growth.

We are subject to extensive regulation in the states in which we conduct business. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) and state insurance regulators are constantly reexamining existing laws and regulations, generally focusing on modifications to holding company regulations, interpretations of existing laws and the development of new laws.

From time to time, states consider and/or enact laws that may alter or increase state authority to regulate insurance companies and insurance holding companies. States also consider and/or enact laws that impact the competitive environment and marketplace for property and casualty insurance. Our insurance company subsidiaries currently transact insurance multiple states.  The political environment in some states has sometimes led to aggressive regulation of property and casualty insurance companies. For example, in 2007, Florida enacted legislation that led to rate levels in the private insurance market that we believe, in many instances in the past,

25

 


were inadequate to cover the related underwriting risk. This same legislation required Citizens to reduce its premium rates and begin competing against private insurers in the Florida residential property insurance market. Florida lawmakers may continue to enact or retain legislation that suppresses the rates of Citizens, further adversely impacting the private insurance market and increasing the likelihood that it must levy assessments on private insurance companies and ultimately on Florida consumers. These and other aspects of the political environment in jurisdictions where we operate may reduce our profitability, limit our growth, or otherwise adversely affect our operations.

During the past several years, various regulatory and legislative bodies have adopted or proposed new laws or regulations to address the cyclical nature of the insurance industry, catastrophic events and insurance capacity and pricing. These regulations include (i) the creation of “market assistance plans” under which insurers are induced to provide certain coverages, (ii) restrictions on the ability of insurers to rescind or otherwise cancel certain policies in mid-term or to nonrenew policies at their scheduled expirations, (iii) advance notice requirements or limitations imposed for certain policy non-renewals, (iv) limitations upon or decreases in rates permitted to be charged, (v) expansion of governmental involvement in the insurance market and (vi) increased regulation of insurers’ policy administration and claims handling practices.

Currently, the federal government does not directly regulate the insurance business. However, in recent years the state insurance regulatory framework has come under increased federal scrutiny. Congress and some federal agencies from time to time investigate the current condition of insurance regulation in the United States to determine whether to impose federal regulation or to allow an optional federal charter, similar to banks. In addition, changes in federal legislation and administrative policies in several areas, including changes in the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, financial services regulation and federal taxation, can significantly impact the insurance industry and us.

We cannot predict with certainty the effect any enacted, proposed or future state or federal legislation or NAIC initiatives may have on the conduct of our business. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that the regulatory requirements applicable to our business will not become more stringent in the future or result in materially higher costs than current requirements, or that creation of a federal insurance regulatory system will not adversely affect our business or disproportionately benefit our competitors. Changes in the regulation of our business may reduce our profitability, limit our growth or otherwise adversely affect our operations.

Our insurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capital and surplus requirements, and our failure to meet these requirements could subject us to regulatory action.

Our insurance subsidiaries are subject to risk-based capital standards and other minimum capital and surplus requirements imposed under applicable state laws. The risk-based capital standards, based upon the Risk-Based Capital Model Act adopted by the NAIC, require our insurance subsidiaries to report the results of risk-based capital calculations to state regulators and the NAIC. These risk-based capital standards provide for different levels of regulatory attention depending upon the ratio of an insurance company’s total adjusted capital, as calculated in accordance with NAIC guidelines, to its authorized control level risk-based capital. Authorized control level risk-based capital is determined using the NAIC’s risk-based capital formula, which measures the minimum amount of capital that an insurance company needs to support its overall business operations.

An insurance company with total adjusted capital that is less than 200% of its authorized control level risk-based capital is at a company action level, which would require the insurance company to file a risk-based capital plan that, among other things, contains proposals of corrective actions the company intends to take that are reasonably expected to result in the elimination of the company action level event. Additional action level events occur when the insurer’s total adjusted capital falls below 150%, 100%, and 70% of its authorized control level risk-based capital. The lower the percentage, the more severe the regulatory response, including, in the event of a mandatory control level event (total adjusted capital falls below 70% of the insurer’s authorized control level risk-based capital), placing the insurance company into receivership. As of December 31, 2016, our insurance subsidiaries each maintained a risk-based capital ratio of over 300%.

In addition, our insurance subsidiaries are required to maintain certain minimum capital and surplus and to limit its written premiums to specified multiples of its capital and surplus. Our insurance subsidiaries could exceed these ratios if their volume increases faster than anticipated or if their surplus declines due to catastrophe or non-catastrophe losses or excessive underwriting and operational expenses.

Any failure by our insurance subsidiaries to meet the applicable risk-based capital or minimum statutory capital requirements or the writings ratio limitations imposed by state law could subject our insurance subsidiaries to further examination or corrective action imposed by state regulators, including limitations on our writing of additional business, state supervision or liquidation.

Any changes in existing risk-based capital requirements, minimum statutory capital requirements, or applicable writings ratios may require us to increase our statutory capital levels, which we may be unable to do.

26

 


Regulation limiting rate increases and requiring us to participate in loss sharing may decrease our profitability.

From time to time, political dispositions affect the insurance market, including efforts to effectively suppress rates at a level that may not allow us to reach targeted levels of profitability. Despite efforts to remove politics from insurance regulation, facts and history demonstrate that public policymakers, when faced with untoward events and adverse public sentiment, can act in ways that impede a satisfactory correlation between rates and risk. Such acts may affect our ability to obtain approval for rate changes that may be required to attain rate adequacy along with targeted levels of profitability and returns on equity. Our ability to afford reinsurance required to reduce our catastrophe risk may be dependent upon the ability to adjust rates for our cost.

Additionally, we are required to participate in guaranty funds for insolvent insurance companies. The funds periodically assess losses against all insurance companies doing business in the state. Our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected by any of these factors.

Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Common Stock

The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Volatility in the market price of our common stock may prevent you from being able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for them. The market price for our common stock could fluctuate significantly for various reasons, including:

 

our operating and financial performance and prospects;

 

our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry;

 

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

 

changes in, or failure to meet, earnings estimates or recommendations by research analysts who track our common stock or the stock of other companies in our industry;

 

the failure of research analysts to cover our common stock;

 

general economic, industry and market conditions;

 

strategic actions by us, our customers or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;

 

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

 

material litigation or government investigations;

 

changes in general conditions in the U.S. and global economies or financial markets, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism or responses to such events;

 

changes in key personnel;

 

sales of common stock by us, our principal stockholders or members of our management team;

 

the granting or exercise of employee stock options;

 

volume of trading in our common stock; and

 

impact of the facts described elsewhere in “Risk Factors.”

In addition, in recent years, the stock market has regularly experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including companies in our industry. The changes frequently appear to occur without regard to the operating performance of the affected companies. Hence, the price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with us and these fluctuations could materially reduce our share price.

We may not continue to pay dividends on our common stock.

In the fourth quarter of 2015 and for each quarter of 2016, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend on our common stock; however, we can provide no assurance or guarantee that we will continue to pay dividends in the future. Therefore, investors who purchase our common stock may only realize a return on their investment if the value of our common stock appreciates. The declaration and payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon

27

 


our profits, financial requirements and other factors including regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends from our subsidiaries, general business conditions and such other factors as our Board of Directors considers relevant.

We may not continue our stock repurchase program

On September 14, 2015, the Company announced that our Board of Directors authorized a $20 million share repurchase program under which purchases may be made from time to time in the open market, or through privately negotiated transactions, block transactions or other techniques, as determined by the Company’s management. In May 2016, the Board of Directors authorized an additional stock repurchase of up to $50 million of the Company’s common stock through December 31, 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company had purchased through open market or private transactions an aggregate of 1,759,330 shares at a total cost of $25.6 million. The declaration and payment of  any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon our profits, financial requirements and other factors including regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends from our subsidiaries, general business conditions and such other factors as our Board of Directors considers relevant. Therefore, investors who purchase our common stock may only realize a return on their investment if the value of our common stock appreciates.

Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws may make it difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors and may discourage hostile takeover attempts that some of our stockholders may consider to be beneficial.

Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control if our board of directors determines that such changes in control are not in the best interests of us and our stockholders. The provisions in such certificate of incorporation and bylaws include, among other things, the following:

 

the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms, including preferences and voting rights, of those shares without stockholder approval;

 

stockholder action can only be taken at a special or regular meeting and not by written consent;

 

advance notice procedures for nominating candidates to our board of directors or presenting matters at stockholder meetings; and

 

allowing only our board of directors to fill vacancies on our board of directors.

We have elected in our certificate of incorporation not to be subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, an anti-takeover law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination, such as a merger, with a person or group owning 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock for a period of three years following the date the person became an interested stockholder, unless (with certain exceptions) the business combination or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder is approved in a prescribed manner. Accordingly, we will not be subject to any anti-takeover effects of Section 203.

While these provisions have the effect of encouraging persons seeking to acquire control of our company to negotiate with our board of directors, they could enable the board of directors to hinder or frustrate a transaction that some, or a majority, of the stockholders might believe to be in their best interests, including an acquisition that would result in a price per share at a premium over the market price, and, in that case, may prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management.

Applicable insurance laws may make it difficult to effect a change of control of our company.

State insurance holding company laws require prior approval by the state insurance department of any change of control of an insurer that is domiciled in that respective state. “Control” is generally defined as the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a company, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise. Control is generally presumed to exist through the direct or indirect ownership of 10% or more of the voting securities of a domestic insurance company or any entity that controls a domestic insurance company. These laws may discourage potential acquisition proposals and may delay, deter or prevent a change of control of us, including through transactions, and in particular unsolicited transactions, that some or all of our stockholders might consider to be desirable.

28

 


Any issuance of preferred stock could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our common stock, which could depress the price of our common stock.

Our board of directors has the authority to issue preferred stock and to determine the preferences, limitations and relative rights of shares of preferred stock and to fix the number of shares constituting any series and the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our preferred stock could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to the rights of our common stock. The potential issuance of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control of us, discouraging bids for our common stock at a premium over the market price, and adversely affect the market price and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock.

Our business and stock price may suffer as a result of our limited public company operating experience. In addition, if securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

We completed our initial public offering in May 2014. Our limited public company operating experience may make it difficult to forecast and evaluate our future prospects. If we are unable to execute our business strategy, either as a result of our inability to effectively manage our business in a public company environment or for any other reason, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed. In addition, if no or very few securities or industry analysts cover of our company, the trading price for our stock would be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

 

 

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

None

Item 2.

Properties

We, through Skye Lane, our wholly-owned subsidiary, own a two-building 14-acre campus located in Clearwater, Florida. We also purchased the BRC facility in Safety Harbor, Florida. Approximately 84% of the property in Clearwater is occupied by unaffiliated tenants.

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

We are subject to routine legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. We believe that the ultimate resolution of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable

 

 

29

 


PART II

 

Item 5.

Market For Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “HRTG”. The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices as reported on the NYSE, and the amount of our dividends declarations, for 2016 and 2015, respectively. These reported prices reflect inter-dealer prices without adjustments for retail markups, markdowns or commissions.

 

Year

 

Quarter

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

Dividends paid per share

 

2016

 

First

 

$

21.42

 

 

$

14.72

 

 

$

0.05

 

 

 

Second

 

$

15.96

 

 

$

11.56

 

 

$

0.06

 

 

 

Third

 

$

15.10

 

 

$

11.50

 

 

$

0.06

 

 

 

Fourth

 

$

16.48

 

 

$

11.25

 

 

$

0.06

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year

 

Quarter

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

Dividends paid per share

 

2015

 

First

 

$

22.80

 

 

$

18.58

 

 

$

 

 

 

Second

 

$

23.23

 

 

$

19.88

 

 

$

 

 

 

Third

 

$

27.28

 

 

$

16.81

 

 

$

 

 

 

Fourth

 

$

24.98

 

 

$

18.73

 

 

$

0.05

 

 

The closing sale price of our common stock as reported on the NYSE on March 1, 2017 was $15.31 per share. As of such date there were 33 holders of record of our common stock based on information provided by our transfer agent.

Dividends

The declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on profits, financial requirements and other factors, such as legal and regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends, overall business condition and other elements the Board of Directors considers relevant.

The following table represents the frequency and amount of the cash dividends declared on our common stock for the two most recent fiscal years.

Declaration Date

 

Date of Record

 

Payment Date

 

Per Share Amount

 

12/18/2015

 

12/31/2015

 

1/13/2016

 

$

0.05

 

3/3/2016

 

3/15/2016

 

4/5/2016

 

$

0.06

 

5/5/2016

 

6/15/2016

 

7/1/2016

 

$

0.06

 

8/4/2016

 

9/15/2016

 

10/3/2016

 

$

0.06

 

11/9/2016

 

12/15/2016

 

1/4/2017

 

$

0.06

 

Share Repurchase Plan

In September 2015, our Board of Directors approved a plan to repurchase up to $20 million of common shares under which we may purchase shares of common stock in open market purchases, block transactions and privately negotiated transactions in accordance with applicable federal securities laws. In May 2016, the Board of Directors authorized an additional stock repurchase of up to $50 million of the Company’s common stock through December 31, 2017. See Note 19 — “Equity” to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plan

For information regarding the securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, refer to “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholders Matters” included in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report.

The table below summarizes the number of shares of common stock repurchased during the year ended December 31, 2016 under the repurchase plan approved by our Board of Directors in September 2015 (dollar amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts):

30

 


 

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased

 

 

Average Price Paid Per Share (1)

 

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs

 

 

Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (a)

 

March 1 - March 31

 

 

612,300

 

 

$

15.66

 

 

 

612,300

 

 

 

10,377,513

 

May 1 - May 31

 

 

213,355

 

 

$

13.71

 

 

 

213,355

 

 

 

57,437,597

 

June 1 - June 30

 

 

314,634

 

 

$

12.73

 

 

 

314,634

 

 

 

53,437,600

 

August 1 - August 31

 

 

115,000

 

 

$

13.75

 

 

 

115,000

 

 

 

51,852,706

 

September 1 - September 30

 

 

169,377

 

 

$

14.23

 

 

 

169,377

 

 

 

49,437,582

 

November 1 - November 30

 

 

334,664

 

 

$

14.88

 

 

 

334,664

 

 

 

44,437,596

 

 

(1)

Represents the balance before commissions and fees at the end of each period.

 

 

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition Results of Operations and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing in Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report. The consolidated statements of income data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014 and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2016 and 2015 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements appearing in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statements of income data for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013 and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any future period.

 

Statements of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

August 7, 2012 (inception) to December 31, 2012

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross premiums written

 

$

626,704

 

 

$

586,098

 

 

$

436,407

 

 

$

218,537

 

 

$

43,384

 

Gross premiums earned

 

 

640,518

 

 

 

524,740

 

 

 

311,514

 

 

 

139,959

 

 

 

5,719

 

Ceded premiums

 

 

(228,797

)

 

 

(148,472

)

 

 

(87,902

)

 

 

(44,800

)

 

 

(120

)

Net premiums earned

 

 

411,721

 

 

 

376,268

 

 

 

223,612

 

 

 

95,159

 

 

 

5,599

 

Net investment income and realized gains

 

 

10,914

 

 

 

8,929

 

 

 

4,153

 

 

 

726

 

 

 

27

 

Other revenue

 

 

16,323

 

 

 

9,595

 

 

 

6,055

 

 

 

28,947

 

 

 

4

 

Total revenue

 

 

438,958

 

 

 

394,792

 

 

 

233,820

 

 

 

124,832

 

 

 

5,630

 

Expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss and loss adjustment expenses

 

 

238,862

 

 

 

141,191

 

 

 

89,560

 

 

 

38,501

 

 

 

1,402

 

Other operating expenses

 

 

143,693

 

 

 

103,311

 

 

 

70,008

 

 

 

30,870

 

 

 

8,835

 

Total expenses

 

 

382,555

 

 

 

244,502

 

 

 

159,568

 

 

 

69,371

 

 

 

10,237

 

Income before income taxes

 

 

56,403

 

 

 

150,290

 

 

 

74,252

 

 

 

55,461

 

 

 

(4,607

)

Provision for income taxes

 

 

22,538

 

 

 

57,778

 

 

 

27,155

 

 

 

21,248

 

 

 

859

 

Net income

 

$

33,865

 

 

$

92,512

 

 

$

47,097

 

 

$

34,213

 

 

$

(5,466

)

Earnings per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

1.14

 

 

$

3.08

 

 

$

1.92

 

 

$

2.39

 

 

$

(0.87

)

Diluted

 

$

1.14

 

 

$

3.05

 

 

$

1.82

 

 

$

2.36

 

 

$

(0.87

)

Ratios to gross premiums earned:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross loss ratio

 

 

37.3

%

 

 

26.9

%

 

 

28.7

%

 

 

27.5

%

 

 

24.5

%

Gross expense ratio

 

 

22.4

%

 

 

19.7

%

 

 

22.5

%

 

 

22.0

%

 

 

154.5

%

Combined ratio

 

 

95.4

%

 

 

74.9

%

 

 

79.4

%

 

 

81.6

%

 

 

81.1

%

 

31

 


Balance Sheet Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2012

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Cash and invested assets

 

$

708,799

 

 

$

636,373

 

 

$

491,640

 

 

$

201,236

 

 

$

76,940

 

Prepaid reinsurance premiums

 

$

106,609

 

 

$

78,517

 

 

$

43,148

 

 

$

31,252

 

 

$

597

 

Deferred policy acquisition costs

 

$

42,779

 

 

$

34,800

 

 

$

24,370

 

 

$

9,765

 

 

$

32

 

Total Assets

 

$

1,033,244

 

 

$

837,398

 

 

$

615,031

 

 

$

281,978

 

 

$

81,864

 

Unpaid loss and loss adjustment expense

 

$

140,137

 

 

$

83,722

 

 

$

51,469

 

 

$

19,344

 

 

$

1,393

 

Unearned premiums

 

$

318,024

 

 

$

302,493

 

 

$

241,136

 

 

$

116,243

 

 

$

37,665

 

Note payable

 

$

72,905

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Reinsurance payable

 

$

96,667

 

 

$

60,210

 

 

$

17,113

 

 

$

29,591

 

 

$

8,987

 

Total Liabilities

 

$

675,285

 

 

$

480,845

 

 

$

359,942

 

 

$

181,073

 

 

$

53,745

 

Total Stockholders' Equity

 

$

357,959

 

 

$

356,553

 

 

$

255,089

 

 

$

79,984

 

 

$

28,119

 

 

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. The actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including, but not limited to, those which are not within our control.

Overview: We are a property and casualty insurance holding company headquartered in Clearwater, Florida and, through our insurance subsidiaries, we provide personal residential insurance for single-family homeowners and condominium owners, and rental property insurance in the states of Florida, Hawaii, North Carolina and South Carolina. We provide commercial residential insurance in Florida and are also licensed in the states of Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. We are vertically integrated and control or manage substantially all aspects of insurance underwriting, customer service, actuarial analysis, distribution and claims processing and adjusting. We are led by an experienced senior management team with an average of 30 years of insurance industry experience. Heritage P&C and Zephyr are both currently rated “A” (“Exceptional”) or better by Demotech, Inc. (“Demotech”), a rating agency specializing in evaluating the financial stability of insurers.

In addition to Heritage P&C and Zephyr P&C, our other subsidiaries include: Heritage MGA, LLC, the managing general agent that manages substantially all aspects of our insurance subsidiaries business; Contractors’ Alliance Network, LLC,  (“CAN”) our Florida vendor network manager that also houses with BRC Restoration Specialists (“BRC”) our provider of restoration, emergency and recovery services; Skye Lane Properties, LLC, our property management subsidiary; First Access Insurance Group, LLC, our retail agency; Osprey Re Ltd (“Osprey”); our reinsurance subsidiary that provides a portion of the reinsurance protection purchased by our insurance subsidiaries; and Heritage Insurance Claims, LLC an inactive subsidiary reserved for future development.

We intend the discussion of our financial condition and results of operations that follows to provide information that will assist the reader in understanding our consolidated financial statements, the changes in certain key items in those financial statements from year to year, and the primary factors that accounted for those changes, as well as how certain accounting principles, policies and estimates affect our consolidated financial statements. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this document.

Discussion of our business and overall financial results, and other highlights related to our results of operations for the periods presented.

Financial Results Highlights for the Year Ended December 31, 2016

 

There were 323,301 policies in-force at December 31, 2016, of which approximately 52.9% were assumed from Citizens, 22.7% were acquired in connection with the Zephyr acquisition, 6.0% were assumed from SSIC and 18.4% were from Heritage P&C voluntary sales

 

Gross premiums written of $626.7 million and total revenue of $439 million

 

Net premiums earned of $411.7 million

 

Net income of $33.9 million

32

 


 

Combined ratio of 95.4% on a gross basis and 92.8% on a net basis

 

Cash, cash equivalents and investments of $708.8 million, with total assets of $1 billion

Consolidated Results of Operations

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods indicated (in thousands, except per share amounts):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

REVENUE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross premiums written

 

$

626,704

 

 

$

586,098

 

 

$

436,407

 

Change in gross unearned premiums

 

 

13,814

 

 

 

(61,358

)

 

 

(124,893

)

Gross premiums earned

 

 

640,518

 

 

 

524,740

 

 

 

311,514

 

Ceded premiums

 

 

(228,797

)

 

 

(148,472

)

 

 

(87,902

)

Net premiums earned

 

 

411,721

 

 

 

376,268

 

 

 

223,612

 

Net investment income

 

 

9,181

 

 

 

7,421

 

 

 

3,849

 

Net realized gains

 

 

1,733

 

 

 

1,508

 

 

 

304

 

Other revenue

 

 

16