UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

(Mark One)

x                              QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended JUNE 30, 2006

OR

o                                 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                 to                

Commission File Number: 000-28317

DIGIMARC CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

 

94-3342784

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

9405 SW Gemini Drive, Beaverton, Oregon

 

97008

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

(503) 469-4800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer o                         Accelerated filer x                            Non-accelerated filer o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o  No x

As of July 31, 2006, there were 21,176,762 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.

 




Table of Contents

PART I FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

Item 1.

 

Financial Statements:

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2006 and December 31, 2005 (Unaudited)

 

3

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three- and six-months ended June 30, 2006 and 2005 (Unaudited)

 

4

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six-months ended
June 30, 2006 and 2005 (Unaudited)

 

5

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

6

Item 2.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

20

Item 3.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

52

Item 4.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

52

PART II OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

Item 1.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

53

Item 4.

 

Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

 

54

Item 6.

 

Exhibits

 

55

SIGNATURES

 

56

 

2




PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.                        Financial Statements.

DIGIMARC CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
(UNAUDITED)

 

 

June 30,

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2006

 

2005(1)

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

17,698

 

 

$

23,964

 

 

Short-term investments

 

1,001

 

 

739

 

 

Trade accounts receivable, net

 

6,895

 

 

9,469

 

 

Unbilled trade receivables

 

7,201

 

 

6,228

 

 

Inventory, net

 

6,349

 

 

7,451

 

 

Other current assets

 

2,596

 

 

2,828

 

 

Total current assets

 

41,740

 

 

50,679

 

 

Restricted cash

 

11,483

 

 

7,279

 

 

Property and equipment, net

 

61,568

 

 

64,108

 

 

Intangibles, net

 

16,144

 

 

17,164

 

 

Other assets, net

 

940

 

 

1,009

 

 

Total assets

 

$

131,875

 

 

$

140,239

 

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

6,877

 

 

$

6,722

 

 

Accrued payroll and related costs

 

3,481

 

 

3,731

 

 

Deferred revenue

 

7,794

 

 

6,809

 

 

Other current liabilities

 

1,759

 

 

2,032

 

 

Total current liabilities

 

19,911

 

 

19,294

 

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

1,189

 

 

969

 

 

Total liabilities

 

21,100

 

 

20,263

 

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock (21,176,762 and 20,808,994 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2006 and December 31, 2005, respectively)

 

22

 

 

21

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

209,657

 

 

209,337

 

 

Deferred stock compensation

 

 

 

(1,519

)

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

137

 

 

137

 

 

Accumulated deficit

 

(99,041

)

 

(88,000

)

 

Total stockholders’ equity

 

110,775

 

 

119,976

 

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

131,875

 

 

$

140,239

 

 


(1)          Derived from the Company’s December 31, 2005 audited consolidated financial statements

See Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

3




DIGIMARC CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE DATA)
(UNAUDITED)

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

 

June30,

 

June 30,

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

2006

 

2005

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

$

20,519

 

$

21,616

 

$

42,809

 

$

41,212

 

Product and subscription

 

4,388

 

3,137

 

9,291

 

7,920

 

Total revenue

 

24,907

 

24,753

 

52,100

 

49,132

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

15,002

 

15,471

 

32,101

 

29,195

 

Product and subscription

 

1,675

 

1,089

 

4,224

 

3,442

 

Total cost of revenue

 

16,677

 

16,560

 

36,325

 

32,637

 

Gross profit

 

8,230

 

8,193

 

15,775

 

16,495

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

4,685

 

3,889

 

9,224

 

7,666

 

Research, development and engineering

 

2,994

 

3,428

 

6,230

 

6,336

 

General and administrative

 

4,172

 

5,521

 

9,382

 

11,018

 

Amortization of intangibles

 

550

 

1,339

 

1,123

 

2,150

 

Intellectual property

 

481

 

467

 

912

 

1,003

 

Restructuring charges, net

 

547

 

 

547

 

 

Total operating expenses

 

13,429

 

14,644

 

27,418

 

28,173

 

Operating income (loss)

 

(5,199

)

(6,451

)

(11,643

)

(11,678

)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

341

 

273

 

666

 

537

 

Interest expense

 

(28

)

(58

)

(44

)

(120

)

Other

 

(5

)

82

 

43

 

64

 

Total other income, net

 

308

 

297

 

665

 

481

 

Income (loss) before provision for income taxes

 

(4,891

)

(6,154

)

(10,978

)

(11,197

)

Provision for income taxes

 

22

 

(63

)

(63

)

(140

)

Net income (loss)

 

$

(4,869

)

$

(6,217

)

$

(11,041

)

$

(11,337

)

Net income (loss) per share—basic

 

$

(0.24

)

$

(0.30

)

$

(0.54

)

$

(0.55

)

Net income (loss) per share—diluted

 

$

(0.24

)

$

(0.30

)

$

(0.54

)

$

(0.55

)

Weighted average shares outstanding—basic

 

20,627

 

20,468

 

20,617

 

20,461

 

Weighted average shares outstanding—diluted

 

20,627

 

20,468

 

20,617

 

20,461

 

 

See Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

4




DIGIMARC CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(IN THOUSANDS)
(UNAUDITED)

 

 

Six Months Ended

 

 

 

June 30,
2006

 

June 30,
2005

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(11,041

)

$

(11,337

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

7,652

 

8,554

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

1,576

 

202

 

Increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts

 

(164

)

72

 

Other non-cash charges

 

(73

)

(8

)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

Restricted cash

 

(4,204

)

992

 

Trade and unbilled accounts receivable, net

 

1,765

 

(429

)

Inventory, net

 

1,102

 

444

 

Other current assets

 

232

 

(1,179

)

Other assets, net

 

69

 

132

 

Accounts payable

 

155

 

(3,981

)

Accrued payroll and related costs

 

(250

)

1,336

 

Deferred revenue

 

985

 

(34

)

Other liabilities

 

(321

)

324

 

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

 

(2,517

)

(4,912

)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase of property and equipment and capitalized labor costs

 

(3,407

)

(8,959

)

Purchase of Intangibles

 

(30

)

(20

)

Sale or maturity of short-term investments

 

62,713

 

91,538

 

Purchase of short-term investments

 

(62,975

)

(74,845

)

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

(3,699

)

7,714

 

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Net proceeds from issuance of common stock

 

264

 

175

 

Principal payments under capital lease obligations

 

(314

)

(234

)

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

 

(50

)

(59

)

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

(6,266

)

2,743

 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

23,964

 

18,489

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

$

17,698

 

$

21,232

 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for interest

 

$

44

 

$

120

 

Cash paid for income taxes

 

$

111

 

$

104

 

Summary of non-cash investing and financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Equipment acquired or exchanged under capital lease obligations

 

$

582

 

$

51

 

Grant of restricted stock

 

$

1,202

 

$

2,025

 

 

See Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

5




DIGIMARC CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE AND PER SHARE DATA)
(UNAUDITED)

1.   The Company, Basis of Presentation

Description of Business

Digimarc Corporation (“Digimarc,” “the Company,” “our” or “we”) is a leading supplier of secure identity solutions and advanced technologies for use in media management. Our solutions enable governments and businesses around the world to deter counterfeiting and piracy, enhance traffic safety and national security, combat identity theft and fraud, facilitate the effectiveness of voter identification programs, improve the management of media content, and support new digital media distribution models that provide consumers with more choice and access to media content.

The Company issues more than 60 million identification documents (“IDs”) annually and is the leading supplier of government-issued citizen IDs in the United States (“U.S.”), producing more than two-thirds of all driver licenses issued in the U.S. Digimarc also is a pioneer and leading owner of intellectual property in a signal processing technology innovation known as “digital watermarking”, which allows imperceptible digital information to be embedded in all forms of digitally-designed, produced or distributed media content, including personal identification documents, financial instruments, photographs, movies, music and product packages. The embedded data within various types of media content can be detected and read by software or hardware detectors in personal computers and other digital devices. We provide solutions based on this technology directly and through our licensees.

As of June 30, 2006, the Company held rights in 271 issued U.S. patents and over 60 issued foreign patents on this technology and related technologies, applications, systems, and processes and had more than 500 U.S. and foreign applications pending.

Digimarc’s solutions and technologies are deployed by the Company and its business partners in media objects and digital devices around the world.

The substantial majority of the Company’s revenue is generated pursuant to long-term contracts with government agencies—primarily U.S. state government agencies responsible for driver license issuance (“State driver license issuers”), a consortium of leading Central Banks and national governments of a number of foreign countries. These systems rely on our systems design, integration and materials science expertise, and proprietary technologies such as digital watermarking, to implement issuance systems and processes that improve the security of identity documents and banknotes.

The remainder of our revenue is generated primarily from patent and technology license fees paid by business partners providing media and rights management solutions to movie studios and music labels, television and radio broadcasters, creative professionals and other customers around the world. Private sector media and entertainment industry customers use secure media management solutions from the Company and its business partners to identify, track, manage and protect content as it is distributed and consumed—either digitally or physically—and to enable new consumer applications to improve access to networks and information from PCs and mobile devices.

Interim Financial Statements

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Digimarc and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant inter-company transactions and balances have been eliminated.

6




The condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared from the Company’s records without audit and, in management’s opinion, include all adjustments (consisting of only normal recurring adjustments) necessary to fairly reflect the financial condition and the results for the periods presented. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. have been condensed or omitted under the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).

These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005, which was filed with the SEC on March 13, 2006. The results of operations for the interim periods presented in these condensed consolidated financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. requires Digimarc to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Certain of the Company’s accounting policies require higher degrees of judgment than others in their application. These include revenue recognition on long-term service contracts, impairments and estimation of useful lives of long-lived assets, inventory valuation, reserves for uncollectible accounts receivable, inputs for stock-based compensation calculations, and contingencies and litigation. Digimarc bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Through December 31, 2005 the Company depreciated program fixed assets that were specifically used to provide services under long term contracts over the shorter of the original contract term or estimated useful life. Starting January 1, 2006, the Company changed its policy for depreciating these assets to the shorter of the original contract term plus 2.75 years or estimated useful life. This change in estimate was supported by analysis completed by the Company during the first quarter of 2006 that showed that historically 95% of contracts were extended beyond the original contract term, that the average contract had at least two contract extensions during its life and that these extensions added on average 2.75 years to the length of the contracts’ original terms. Since contract-specific program assets are tracked on a contract basis, the findings that the contract life is routinely significantly longer than the original contract term and that these extensions are not generally accompanied by significant incremental capital investment indicates that the contract-related asset’s useful life was longer than the original term of the contract. Given the findings of the analysis, Digimarc concluded that it was appropriate to change the estimated useful lives so that contract specific assets were being depreciated over the Company’s estimate of the useful life of these assets. This change had the effect of reducing depreciation expense by $2,095 and $4,241 for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2006, respectively. This reduction in depreciation increased basic and diluted earnings by $0.10 and $0.21 for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2006, respectively, per share before taxes. Given that the depreciation expense attributed to contract-specific assets is part of cost of revenue, the decrease in depreciation expense will cause gross margins to increase by the amount of the reduction in depreciation expense.

Reclassifications

Certain amounts in the 2005 consolidated financial statements and notes thereon have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation. These reclassifications had no material effect on the results of operations or financial position for any year presented.

7




Specifically, certain costs were reclassified from general and administrative to cost of revenue, sales and marketing, research, development and engineering, intellectual property and amortization of intangibles as shown on the condensed consolidated statement of operations. The amortization of intangibles category includes amortization costs related to intangible assets, primarily customer relationship intangibles originally recorded in December 2001. The intellectual property category includes costs associated with documenting, applying for, and maintaining patents generated through the Company’s research and development efforts. The infrastructure category includes rent, leasehold improvements amortization, insurance expense and infrastructure depreciation. The centralized cost category includes centralized departments that serve all operations such as our information technology department. The methods employed were based on headcount, square footage or a combination of both as appropriate.

 

 

 

 

Intellectual

 

 

 

Centralized

 

 

 

Quarter ending March 31, 2005,

 

 

 

Before

 

Property

 

Infrastructure

 

Cost

 

After

 

Cost of revenue—service

 

$

13,140

 

 

$

 

 

 

$

140

 

 

 

$

444

 

 

$

13,724

 

Total cost of revenue

 

15,493

 

 

 

 

 

140

 

 

 

444

 

 

16,077

 

Gross profit

 

8,886

 

 

 

 

 

(140

)

 

 

(444

)

 

8,302

 

Sales and marketing

 

3,815

 

 

(311

)

 

 

103

 

 

 

170

 

 

3,777

 

Research, development and engineering

 

2,483

 

 

(220

)

 

 

233

 

 

 

412

 

 

2,908

 

General and administrative

 

7,004

 

 

(5

)

 

 

(476

)

 

 

(1,026

)

 

5,497

 

Amortization of Intangibles

 

811

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

811

 

Intellectual Property

 

 

 

536

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

536

 

Total operating expenses

 

14,113

 

 

 

 

 

(140

)

 

 

(444

)

 

13,529

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intellectual

 

 

 

Centralized

 

 

 

Quarter ending June 30, 2005,

 

 

 

Before

 

Property

 

Infrastructure

 

Cost

 

After

 

Cost of revenue—service

 

$

14,878

 

 

$

 

 

 

$

142

 

 

 

$

451

 

 

$

15,471

 

Total cost of revenue

 

15,967

 

 

 

 

 

142

 

 

 

451

 

 

16,560

 

Gross profit

 

8,786

 

 

 

 

 

(142

)

 

 

(451

)

 

8,193

 

Sales and marketing

 

3,898

 

 

(287

)

 

 

105

 

 

 

173

 

 

3,889

 

Research, development and engineering

 

3,001

 

 

(220

)

 

 

228

 

 

 

419

 

 

3,428

 

General and administrative

 

6,999

 

 

40

 

 

 

(475

)

 

 

(1,043

)

 

5,521

 

Amortization of Intangibles

 

1,339

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,339

 

Intellectual Property

 

 

 

467

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

467

 

Total operating expenses

 

15,237

 

 

 

 

 

(142

)

 

 

(451

)

 

14,644

 

 

2.   Net Income (Loss) Per Share Computation

Net income (loss) per share (or earnings per share (“EPS”)) is calculated in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 128, Earnings per Share, which provides that basic and diluted net income (loss) per share for all periods presented are to be computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period, with diluted net income (loss) per share including the effect of potentially dilutive common shares. For all periods presented, basic and diluted shares were the same. Shares are expressed in thousands.

Common stock equivalents related to stock options of 5,632 and 5,324 were excluded from diluted net loss per share calculations for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2006, respectively, as their exercise price was higher than the average market price of the underlying common stock for the period and therefore their impact would be anti-dilutive. In addition, common stock equivalents related to stock options and restricted stock of 759 and 821 for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2006, respectively, were excluded from diluted net loss per share as the Company was in a loss position and their inclusion would be anti-dilutive. The effect of 6,658 and 6,371 outstanding stock options for the three- and

8




six-months periods ended June 30, 2005, respectively, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their exercise price was higher than the average market price of the underlying common stock for the period and therefore their inclusion would be anti-dilutive. In addition, common stock equivalents related to stock options of 407 and 351 for the three- and six-months periods ended June 30, 2005, respectively were excluded from diluted net loss per share as the Company was in a loss position and their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.

3.   Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-based compensation includes expense charges for all stock-based awards to employees and directors. Such awards include option grants, restricted stock awards, and shares expected to be purchased under an employee stock purchase plan. On January 1, 2006, the Company adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123(R), Share-Based Payment (Revised 2004), which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation for all stock-based awards made to employees and directors including stock options and employee stock purchases under a stock purchase plan based on estimated fair values. SFAS 123(R) supersedes previous accounting under Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees, for periods beginning in fiscal 2006. In March 2005, the Securities and Exchange Commission issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107 relating to application of SFAS 123(R). The Company has applied the provisions of SAB 107 in our adoption of SFAS 123(R).

The Company adopted SFAS 123(R) using the modified prospective transition method, which requires the application of the accounting standard as of January 1, 2006, the first day of our 2006 fiscal year. In accordance with the modified prospective transition method, the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements for periods prior to the first quarter of fiscal 2006 have not been restated to reflect this change. Stock-based compensation recognized during the period is based on the value of the portion of the stock-based award that will vest during the period, adjusted for expected forfeitures. Stock-based compensation recognized in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements for the first quarter of fiscal 2006 includes compensation cost for stock-based awards granted prior to, but not fully vested as of, December 31, 2005 and stock-based awards granted subsequent to December 31, 2005. The compensation cost for awards granted prior to January 1, 2006 is based on the grant date fair value estimated in accordance with the pro forma provisions of SFAS 123 while awards granted on or after January 1, 2006 follow the provisions of SFAS 123(R) to determine the grant date fair value and compensation cost. Compensation cost for all stock-based awards is recognized using the straight-line method.

Upon adoption of SFAS 123(R), the Company continued to use the Black-Scholes option pricing model as its method of valuation for stock-based awards. The Company’s determination of the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using an option pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to the expected life of the award, our expected stock price volatility over the term of the award and actual and projected exercise behaviors. Although the fair value of stock-based awards is determined in accordance with SFAS 123(R) and SAB 107, the Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, and other reasonable assumptions could provide differing results.

Prior to January 1, 2006, the Company applied the recognition and measurement principles of Accounting Principles Board (“APB”) Opinion No. 25, Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees, and related interpretations including Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 44, Accounting for Certain Transactions involving Stock Compensation, an Interpretation of APB Opinion No. 25, as allowed by FASB Statement No. 123,  Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation. FASB Statement No. 123 and FASB Statement No. 148, Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation—Transition and Disclosure, an amendment of FASB Statement No. 123, established accounting and disclosure requirements

9




using a fair-value-based method of accounting for stock-based employee compensation plans. Under APB Opinion No. 25, stock-based compensation expense is recognized for stock awards granted with an exercise price below fair market value on the date of grant.

Determining Fair Value Under SFAS 123(R)

Valuation and Amortization Method.   The Company estimates the fair value of stock-based awards granted using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The Company amortizes the fair value of all awards on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods, which are generally the vesting periods.

Expected Life.   The expected life of awards granted represents the period of time that they are expected to be outstanding. The Company determines the expected life based on historical experience with similar awards, giving consideration to the contractual terms, vesting schedules and pre-vesting and post-vesting forfeitures. Stock options granted during the three- and six-months ended June 30, 2006 and 2005 generally vest over four years and have contractual terms of ten years. Stock purchases under the Company’s stock purchase plan have an expected life of six months to two years, which is equal to the offering period.

Expected Volatility.   The Company estimates the volatility of its common stock at the date of grant based on the historical volatility of its common stock. The volatility factor the Company uses in the Black-Scholes option valuation model is based on its historical stock prices over the most recent period commensurate with the estimated expected life of the award. This historical period excludes portions of time when unusual transactions occurred, such as a significant acquisition.

Risk-Free Interest Rate.   The Company bases the risk-free interest rate used in the Black-Scholes option valuation model on the implied yield currently available on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent remaining term approximately equal to the expected life of the award.

Expected Dividend Yield.   The Company has never paid any cash dividends on its common stock and does not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, the Company uses an expected dividend yield of zero in the Black-Scholes option valuation model.

Expected Forfeitures.   The Company uses relevant historical data to estimate pre-vesting option forfeitures. The Company records stock-based compensation only for those awards that are expected to vest.

The fair value of each option grant is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. There were 52,957 shares purchased under the Company’s stock purchase plan during the three- and six- month periods ended June 30, 2006 and 32,491 shares purchased during the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2005. A summary of the weighted average assumptions and results for options granted during the periods presented is as follows:

 

 

Three Months
Ended
June 30,

 

Six Months
Ended
June 30,

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

2006

 

2005

 

Expected life (in years)

 

6.0

 

4.0

 

6.0

 

4.0

 

Expected volatility

 

53

%

50

%

53

%

50

%

Risk-free interest rate

 

4.7

%

4.5

%

4.7

%

4.5

%

Expected dividend yield

 

0

%

0

%

0

%

0

%

Expected forfeiture rate

 

14

%

20

%

14

%

20

%

Fair value

 

$

3.89

 

$

2.85

 

$

3.89

 

$

2.85

 

 

10




Stock-based Compensation Under FAS 123(R)

The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense related to stock-based awards under SFAS 123(R) for the three- and six-months ended June 30, 2006 which was incurred as follows (in thousands):

 

 

Three Months
Ended
June 30, 2006

 

Six Months
Ended
June 30, 2006

 

Stock-based compensation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

 

$

84

 

 

 

$

138

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

134

 

 

 

256

 

 

Research, development and engineering

 

 

76

 

 

 

190

 

 

General and administrative

 

 

488

 

 

 

992

 

 

Total stock-based compensation

 

 

$

782

 

 

 

$

1,576

 

 

 

At June 30, 2006 the Company had 1.6 million non-vested stock options that had a weighted average grant date price of $6.32. As of June 30, 2006, the Company had $6.1 million of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested stock-based awards granted under all equity compensation plans, including options, restricted stock, and employee stock purchase plan. Total unrecognized compensation cost will be adjusted for any future changes in estimated forfeitures. The Company expects to recognize this cost over a weighted average period of 1.72 years.

The following table presents the impact of the Company’s adoption of SFAS 123(R) on selected line items from its condensed consolidated financial statements for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2006 (in thousands, except per share amounts):

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30, 2006

 

Six Months Ended June 30, 2006

 

 

 

As Reported
Following FAS 123 (R

 

If Reported
Following APB 25

 

As Reported
Following FAS 123 (R)

 

If Reported
Following APB 25

 

Condensed consolidated statement of operations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

 

 

$

(5,199

)

 

 

$

(4,636

)

 

 

$

(11,643

)

 

 

$

(10,474

)

 

Income (loss) before provision for income taxes

 

 

(4,891

)

 

 

(4,328

)

 

 

(10,978

)

 

 

(9,809

)

 

Net income (loss)

 

 

(4,869

)

 

 

(4,306

)

 

 

(11,041

)

 

 

(9,872

)

 

Net income (loss) per
share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

(0.24

)

 

 

(0.21

)

 

 

(0.54

)

 

 

(0.48

)

 

Diluted

 

 

(0.24

)

 

 

(0.21

)

 

 

(0.54

)

 

 

(0.48

)

 

 

Stock Option Activity

As of June 30, 2006, under all of the Company’s stock-based compensation plans, options to purchase an aggregate of 7.3 million shares were outstanding, and options to purchase an additional 3.6 million shares were authorized for future grants under the plans. The Company issues new shares for option exercises.

11




Options granted, exercised, canceled and expired under the Company’s stock option plans are summarized as follows:

 

 

Options

 

Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price

 

Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life

 

Outstanding at December 31, 2005

 

7,368,636

 

 

$

16.16

 

 

 

 

Options granted

 

693,035

 

 

4.54

 

 

 

 

Options exercised

 

(1,922

)

 

2.42

 

 

 

 

Options canceled

 

(823,248

)

 

14.20

 

 

 

 

Options expired

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding at March 31, 2006

 

7,236,501

 

 

$

14.00

 

 

6.84 years

 

Exercisable at March 31, 2006

 

5,617,298

 

 

$

16.24

 

 

6.23 years

 

 

 

 

Options

 

Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price

 

Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life

 

Outstanding at March 31, 2006

 

7,236,501

 

 

$

14.00

 

 

 

 

Options granted

 

277,825

 

 

6.83

 

 

 

 

Options exercised

 

(3,857

)

 

2.81

 

 

 

 

Options canceled

 

(212,919

)

 

11.07

 

 

 

 

Options expired

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding at June 30, 2006

 

7,297,550

 

 

$

13.82

 

 

6.80 years

 

Exercisable at June 30, 2006

 

5,706,024

 

 

$

15.91

 

 

6.09 years

 

 

At December 31, 2005, a total of 6.3 million options were exercisable at a weighted-average exercise price of $16.16.

The following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding at June 30, 2006:

 

 

Options Outstanding

 

Options Exercisable

 

Range of Exercise Prices

 

 

 

Number
Outstanding

 

Remaining
Contractual Life
(Years)

 

Weighted
Average
Price

 

Number
Exercisable

 

Weighted
Average
Price

 

$  0.50 - $  6.15

 

 

1,414,558

 

 

 

8.46

 

 

 

$

5.40

 

 

452,302

 

 

$

4.24

 

 

$  6.19 - $  9.85

 

 

1,066,836

 

 

 

8.81

 

 

 

$

7.58

 

 

437,566

 

 

$

8.58

 

 

$10.29 - $12.25

 

 

760,612

 

 

 

7.48

 

 

 

$

11.60

 

 

760,612

 

 

$

11.60

 

 

$12.40 - $12.25

 

 

653,043

 

 

 

6.59

 

 

 

$

12.83

 

 

653,043

 

 

$

12.83

 

 

$13.38 - $14.13

 

 

797,200

 

 

 

4.67

 

 

 

$

14.06

 

 

797,200

 

 

$

14.06

 

 

$14.40 - $15.24

 

 

629,210

 

 

 

6.47

 

 

 

$

15.10

 

 

629,210

 

 

$

15.10

 

 

$15.25 - $17.00

 

 

830,297

 

 

 

6.38

 

 

 

$

16.26

 

 

830,297

 

 

$

16.26

 

 

$17.60 - $26.25

 

 

769,744

 

 

 

4.92

 

 

 

$

20.99

 

 

769,744

 

 

$

20.99

 

 

$27.50 - $35.13

 

 

121,050

 

 

 

3.86

 

 

 

$

31.40

 

 

121,050

 

 

$

31.40

 

 

$53.94 - $53.94

 

 

255,000

 

 

 

3.59

 

 

 

$

53.94

 

 

255,000

 

 

$

53.94

 

 

$  0.50 - $53.94

 

 

7,297,550

 

 

 

6.80

 

 

 

$

13.82

 

 

5,706,024

 

 

$

15.91

 

 

 

12




Pro Forma Information Under SFAS 123 and APB 25

Prior to the fiscal year ending December 31, 2006, the Company accounted for stock-based compensation plans using the intrinsic value method prescribed in APB 25 and related interpretations. No stock-based compensation related to option grants or the employee stock purchase plan was reflected in net loss in the three- and six-months ended June 30, 2005, as all stock options granted under those plans had an exercise price equal to or greater than the market value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant. Had compensation cost for the plans been determined based on the fair value at the grant dates for awards under those plans consistent with the method of SFAS 123, the Company’s net loss and basic and diluted net loss per share for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2005 would have been changed to the pro forma amounts indicated below (in thousands, except for per share data):

 

 

Three Months
Ended
June 30, 2005

 

Six Months
Ended
June 30, 2005

 

Net loss, as reported

 

 

$

(6,217

)

 

 

$

(11,337

)

 

Add: Stock-based compensation expense determined under the intrinsic value method

 

 

151

 

 

 

202

 

 

Deduct: Total stock-based employee compensation expense determined under fair value based method for all awards

 

 

(1,834

)

 

 

(3,510

)

 

Pro forma net loss

 

 

$

(7,900

)

 

 

$

(14,645

)

 

Earnings per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic—as reported

 

 

$

(0.30

)

 

 

$

(0.55

)

 

Diluted—as reported

 

 

$

(0.30

)

 

 

$

(0.55

)

 

Basic—pro forma

 

 

$

(0.39

)

 

 

$

(0.72

)

 

Diluted—pro forma

 

 

$

(0.39

)

 

 

$

(0.72

)

 

 

On December 15, 2005, the Board of Directors of the Company approved the acceleration of vesting of the Company’s outstanding stock options with option exercise prices equal to or greater than $9.00. The acceleration applied to all options outstanding as of December 31, 2005 under the Company’s Restated 1999 Stock Incentive Plan and 2000 Non-Officer Employee Stock Incentive Plan, except for options held by members of the Company’s Board of Directors. Options to purchase 422,248 shares of the Company’s common stock, or 6% of the Company’s total outstanding options, with a weighted average exercise price of $11.51 and varying remaining vesting schedules, were subject to this acceleration and became immediately vested and exercisable as of December 31, 2005. Of these 422,248 options, 120,972 options are held by the Company’s executive officers.

On December 21, 2004, the Audit, Compensation and Corporate Governance Committees of the Board of Directors of the Company approved the acceleration of vesting of the Company’s outstanding stock options with option exercise prices greater than $15.00. The acceleration applied to all options outstanding under the Company’s Restated 1999 Stock Incentive Plan and 2000 Non-Officer Employee Stock Incentive Plan that would not have otherwise vested in full by June 30, 2005 in accordance with their terms. The effective date of the vesting acceleration was December 31, 2004. Options to purchase 310,057 shares of the Company’s common stock, or 5% of the total number of options of the Company outstanding as of December 31, 2004 with remaining vesting schedules, were accelerated. Of these 310,057 options, approximately 50,000 options were held by the Company’s executive officers. No additional compensation expense was recorded in the statement of operations as the options that were accelerated had an exercise price greater than the fair market value of the shares underlying the options on the date of the modification.

As a result of these accelerations, the Company reduced its exposure to the effects of SFAS 123(R).

13




4.   Segment Information

The Company derives its revenue from a single reporting segment, secure identity and media management. Revenue is generated in this reporting segment through licensing and subscription of its various products and the delivery of contracted and consulting services related to these products. The Company markets its products in the U.S. and in other countries through its sales personnel and its subsidiaries.

Revenue by geography is as follows:

 

 

Three Months Ended
June 30,

 

Six Months Ended
June 30,

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

2006

 

2005

 

Domestic

 

$

21,112

 

$

20,108

 

$

41,307

 

$

40,069

 

International

 

3,795

 

4,645

 

10,793

 

9,063

 

Total

 

$

24,907

 

$

24,753

 

$

52,100

 

$

49,132

 

 

One customer accounted for approximately 11% of total revenue in the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 and approximately 10% of total revenue in the six-month period ended June 30, 2006. There was no single customer in the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2005 that accounted for more than 10% of total revenue. There was one customer that accounted for more than 10% of trade and unbilled accounts receivable, net at June 30, 2006. There was one customer who accounted for 11% of trade and unbilled accounts receivable, net at December 31, 2005.

5.   Commitments and Contingencies

Beginning in September 2004, three purported class action lawsuits were commenced against the Company and certain of its current and former directors and officers by or on behalf of persons claiming to have purchased or otherwise acquired the Company’s securities during the period from April 17, 2002 to July 28, 2004. These lawsuits were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Oregon and were consolidated into one action for all purposes on December 16, 2004. On May 16, 2005, plaintiffs filed an amended complaint. The complaint asserted claims under the federal securities laws, specifically Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, relating to the Company’s announcement that it had discovered errors in its accounting for software development costs and project capitalization and other project cost capitalization accounting practices, and that it likely would be required to restate its previously reported financial statements for full fiscal year 2003 and the first two quarters of 2004. Specifically, the complaint alleged that the Company issued false and misleading financial statements and created a misperception regarding the profitability of the Company in order to inflate the value of Digimarc stock, which permitted insider sales of personal holdings at inflated values, and that the Company maintained insufficient accounting controls, which created an environment where improper accounting could be used to manipulate financial results. The complaint sought unspecified damages. On November 30, 2005, the Court granted the Company’s motion to dismiss the amended complaint on the grounds that plaintiffs had failed to allege facts sufficient to support their allegation that the defendants knowingly or recklessly acted in violation of the securities laws. Plaintiffs filed a second amended complaint on January 17, 2006. On February 14, 2006, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the second amended complaint on the grounds that plaintiffs still fail to allege facts sufficient to support their allegation that the defendants knowingly or recklessly acted in violation of the securities laws. On August 4, 2006, the Court granted this motion and dismissed the lawsuit with prejudice. Plaintiffs have thirty days to appeal this decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation, the Company cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of the matter.

14




On or about October 19, 2004, two purported shareholder derivative lawsuits were filed against certain of the Company’s officers and directors, naming the Company as a nominal defendant, in the Superior Court of the State of California for the County of San Luis Obispo. These lawsuits were consolidated into one action for all purposes on March 14, 2005. This suit claims that certain of these officers and directors breached their fiduciary duties to the Company’s shareholders and to the Company. The complaint is derivative in nature and does not seek relief from the Company. The Board of Directors appointed an independent committee to investigate the claims asserted in this derivative lawsuit, as well as the second derivative action described in the immediately following paragraph. On July 19, 2005, the court granted the Company’s motion to stay these consolidated actions in favor of a shareholder derivative action to be filed by plaintiffs in the Circuit Court of the State of Oregon for the County of Washington. On August 25, 2005, the California plaintiffs filed two new derivative lawsuits in the United States District Court for the District of Oregon. On October 17, 2005, defendants filed a motion to dismiss these complaints for lack of subject matter jurisdiction and failure to state a claim. This motion currently is pending. In May of 2006, the Board committee, after completing its investigation, concluded that pursuit of the allegations would not be in the best interests of Digimarc or its shareholders.

A separate derivative action, involving substantially the same claims, was filed on or about April 6, 2005 in the Circuit Court of the State of Oregon for the County of Washington. On March 31, 2006 the individual defendants filed a motion to dismiss the lawsuit based on the recommendation of the Board committee. Plaintiffs subsequently stipulated to a dismissal of the lawsuit and, on May 5, 2006, Judge Gardner signed a stipulated motion and order of dismissal, dismissing the lawsuit with prejudice.

Beginning in May 2001, a number of substantially identical class action complaints alleging violations of the federal securities laws were filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York naming approximately 300 companies, including the Company, certain of its officers and directors, and certain underwriters of the Company’s initial public offering as defendants. The complaints have since been consolidated into a single action, and a consolidated amended complaint was filed in April 2002. The amended complaint alleges, among other things, that the underwriters of the Company’s initial public offering violated securities laws by failing to disclose certain alleged compensation arrangements (such as undisclosed commissions or stock stabilization practices) in the Company’s initial public offering registration statement and by engaging in manipulative practices to artificially inflate the price of the Company’s stock in the after-market subsequent to the Company’s initial public offering. The Company and certain of its officers and directors are named in the amended complaint pursuant to Section 11 of the Securities Act of 1933, and Section 10(b) and Rule 10b-5 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 on the basis of an alleged failure to disclose the underwriters’ alleged compensation arrangements and manipulative practices. The complaint seeks unspecified damages. The individual officer and director defendants entered into tolling agreements and, pursuant to a court order dated October 9, 2002, were dismissed from the litigation without prejudice. Furthermore, in July 2002, the Company and the other defendants in the consolidated cases filed motions to dismiss the amended complaint for failure to state a claim. The motion to dismiss claims under Section 11 was denied as to virtually all the defendants in the consolidated actions, including the Company. The claims against the Company under Section 10(b), however, were dismissed. In June 2003, a committee of the Company’s board of directors conditionally approved a proposed partial settlement with the plaintiffs in this matter. In June 2004, an agreement of settlement was submitted to the court for preliminary approval. The settlement would provide, among other things, a release of the Company and of the individual defendants for the conduct alleged in the amended complaint to be wrongful. The Company would agree to undertake other responsibilities under the partial settlement, including agreeing to assign away, not assert, or release certain potential claims the Company may have against its underwriters. Any direct financial impact of the proposed settlement (other than defense costs incurred and expensed prior to May 31, 2003) is expected to be borne by the Company’s insurers. The court granted the preliminary approval motion on February 15, 2005, subject to certain modifications. On August 31, 2005, the court issued a preliminary order further approving the

15




modifications to the settlement and certifying the settlement classes. The court also appointed the Notice Administrator for the settlement and ordered that notice of the settlement be distributed to all settlement class members beginning on November 15, 2005 and completed by January 15, 2006. The settlement fairness hearing was held on April 26, 2006, but the court has not yet rendered its decision. If the court determines that the settlement is fair to the class members, the settlement will be approved. There can be no assurance that this proposed settlement will be approved and implemented in its current form, or at all. Due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation and because the settlement approval process is at a preliminary stage, the Company cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of the matter.

The Company from time to time experiences delays in identification system implementation, timely acceptance for identification systems programs, concerns regarding identification system program performance, and other contractual disputes. Customers have asserted, and may in the future assert, compensatory or liquidated damages, breach of contract, or other claims alleging that the Company has failed to meet timing or other delivery requirements and milestones pursuant to the terms of such contracts. From time to time, customers have given notice of their intention to assert claims for liquidated damages. Management believes that these assertions are often part of the resolution process involving commercial disagreements over the terms of these contracts. Such disputes are not uncommon and tend to be resolved over time. However, the Company’s failure to meet contractual milestones or other performance requirements as promised, or to successfully resolve customer disputes, could result in the Company incurring liability for damages, as well as increased costs, lower margins, or compensatory obligations in addition to other losses, such as harm to its reputation. Such circumstances could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business and financial results. The Company anticipates that future contracts will continue to have such provisions unless and until industry practices change.

Certain of the Company’s product license and services agreements include an indemnification provision for claims from third parties relating to the Company’s intellectual property. Such indemnification provisions are accounted for in accordance with SFAS No. 5,  Accounting for Contingencies. To date, there have been no claims made under such indemnification provisions.

The Company is subject from time to time to other legal proceedings and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. Although the ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined, management believes that, as of June 30, 2006, the final disposition of these proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on the consolidated financial position, results of operations, or liquidity of the Company. No accrual has been recorded because the amounts are not probable or reasonably estimatable in accordance with SFAS No. 5,  Accounting for Contingencies.

6.   Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 156,  Accounting for Servicing of Financial Assets, an amendment of SFAS No. 140, Accounting for Transfers and Servicing of Financial Assets and Extinguishments of Liabilities. The statement changes the way entities account for servicing assets and obligations associated with financial assets acquired or disposed of. SFAS No. 156 is effective for the first fiscal year beginning after September 15, 2006. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.

In July 2006, the FASB issued Interpretation No. 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, which defines the threshold for recognizing the benefits of tax return positions in the financial statements as “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained by the taxing authority. Interpretation No. 48 applies to all tax positions accounted for under SFAS No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes. Interpretation No. 48 is effective as of the beginning of the first fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2006. Upon adoption, we will adjust our financial statements to reflect only those tax positions that are more-likely-than-not to be sustained as of the adoption date. Any adjustment will be recorded directly to our beginning retained

16




earnings balance in the period of adoption and reported as a change in accounting principle. We are currently analyzing the effects of adopting Interpretation No. 48.

7.   Revenue Recognition

Revenue from the Company’s government-issued credential systems is generally billed and recognized on a per card produced basis. The Company recognizes revenue on these contracts based on the actual monthly production, if available, and in limited situations on estimated volume information. When actual production information becomes available, typically within one month, the Company bills the customer accordingly and any differences from the estimates are recognized in the month the billing occurs. Differences to date have not been significant. Revenue earned which has not been invoiced is classified as unbilled trade receivables in the consolidated balance sheets. Revenue related to an enhancement of or upgrade to an existing system is deferred and recognized over the remaining life of the contract.

Revenue for sales of consumables and equipment not related to a driver license production contract is recognized when the products have been shipped, ownership has been transferred, evidence of an arrangement exists, the sales price is fixed and determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured.

Revenue from professional services arrangements is generally determined based on time and material or a cost plus a profit margin measure. Revenue for professional services is recognized as the services are performed. Progress towards completion is measured using costs incurred compared to the budgeted amounts contained in the contract. Losses on contracts, if any, are provided for in the period in which the loss becomes determinable. Billing for services rendered generally occurs within one month following when the services are provided. Revenue earned which has not been invoiced is classified as unbilled trade receivables in the consolidated balance sheets.

Royalty revenue is recognized when the royalty amounts owed to the Company have been earned, are determinable, and collection is probable. Subscriptions are paid in advance and revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the subscription.

Maintenance revenue is recognized when the maintenance amounts owed to the Company have been earned, are determinable, and collection is probable. Maintenance contracts are, at times, paid in advance and revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the service period.

Deferred revenue consists of payments received in advance for professional services, subscriptions and hardware for which revenue has not been earned.

The Company also generates revenue from the licensing of digital watermarking products and services for use in authenticating documents, detecting fraudulent documents and deterring unauthorized duplication or alteration of high-value documents, for use in communicating copyright, asset management and business-to-business image commerce solutions, and for use in connecting analog media to a digital environment. Software revenue is recognized in accordance with AICPA SOP No. 97-2, as amended by AICPA SOP No. 98-9, Modification of SOP 97-2, With Respect to Certain Transactions. Revenue for licenses of the Company’s software products is recognized upon the Company meeting the following criteria: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery has occurred; the vendor’s fee is fixed or determinable; and collectibility is probable.

AICPA SOP No. 98-9 requires that revenue be recognized using the “residual method” in circumstances when vendor specific objective evidence exists only for undelivered elements. Under the residual method, revenue is recognized as follows: (1) the total fair value of undelivered elements, as indicated by vendor specific objective evidence, is deferred and subsequently recognized in accordance with the relevant sections of AICPA SOP No. 97-2, and (2) the difference between the total arrangement fee and the amount deferred for the undelivered elements is recognized as revenue related to the delivered elements.

17




Certain customer arrangements encompass multiple deliverables, such as hardware sales, consumables sales, maintenance fees, and software development fees. The Company accounts for these arrangements in accordance with Emerging Issues Task Force Issue No. 00-21, Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables. If the deliverables meet the criteria in EITF Issue No. 00-21, the deliverables are divided into separate units of accounting and revenue is allocated to the deliverables based on their relative fair values. The criteria specified in EITF Issue No. 00-21 are as follows (i) the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis, (ii) there is objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered item, and (iii) if the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item, delivery or performance of the undelivered item is considered probable and substantially in the control of the vendor. For our purposes, fair value is generally defined as the price at which a customer could purchase each of the elements independently from other vendors or as the price that the Company has sold the element separately to another customer. Applicable revenue recognition criteria is considered separately for each separate unit of accounting. Management applies judgment to ensure appropriate application of EITF Issue No. 00-21, including value allocation among multipledeliverables, determination of whether undelivered elements are essential to the functionality of delivered elements and timing of revenue recognition, among others.

8.   Inventory

Inventory consists primarily of the consumable materials used to manufacture identification cards, such as inks, card stock, laminates, and adhesives (considered raw material), equipment held for sale (considered finished goods) and deferred contract costs (considered either finished goods or in-process). Inventories are valued on a first-in, first-out basis at the lower of cost or market value (net realizable value).

 

 

June 30,
2006

 

December 31,
2005

 

Equipment and deferred contract costs

 

 

$

778

 

 

 

$

899

 

 

Consumable materials

 

 

5,571

 

 

 

6,552

 

 

Inventory, net

 

 

$

6,349

 

 

 

$

7,451

 

 

 

The reserve for slow moving and obsolete items was $220 and $240 at June 30, 2006 and December 31, 2005, respectively. While we do not currently expect to be able to sell or otherwise use the reserved inventory we have on hand based upon our forecast and backlog, it is possible that a customer or customers will decide in the future to purchase a portion of the reserved inventory.

9.   Software Development Costs

Under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 86,  Accounting for the Cost of Computer Software to Be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed, software development costs are to be capitalized beginning when a product’s technological feasibility has been established and ending when a product is made available for general release to customers. To date, the establishment of technological feasibility of the Company’s products has occurred shortly before general release and, therefore, software development costs qualifying for capitalization have been immaterial. Accordingly, the Company has not capitalized any software development costs and has charged all such costs to research and development expense.

Internal use software development costs are accounted for in accordance with AICPA SOP No. 98-1, Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use. Costs incurred in the preliminary project stage are expensed as incurred and costs incurred in the application development stage, which meet the capitalization criteria, are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset, generally three to five years. Costs incurred in the post-implementation

18




stage are expensed as incurred. Internal use software development projects that have been capitalized to date relate to card manufacturing and control systems software.

10.   Related Party Transactions

During the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2006, the Company recognized revenue of $100 and $225, respectively, from a holder of common stock. In addition the Company recognized revenue of $113 and $255 for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2005, respectively, from this stockholder. Net accounts receivable from this stockholder was $20 at June 30, 2006 and $231 at December 31, 2005.

19




Item 2.                        Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements relating to future events or the future financial performance of Digimarc, which involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. Please see the discussion regarding forward-looking statements included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the caption “Safe Harbor Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.”

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-Q. Readers are also urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made by us which attempt to advise interested parties of the factors which affect our business, including without limitation the disclosures made under the caption “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-Q and the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005 filed on March 13, 2006, and other reports and filings made with the SEC.

Overview

Digimarc Corporation (“Digimarc,” “the Company,” “our” or “we”) is a leading supplier of secure identity solutions and advanced technologies for use in media management. Our solutions enable governments and businesses around the world to deter counterfeiting and piracy, enhance traffic safety and national security, combat identity theft and fraud, facilitate the effectiveness of voter identification programs, improve the management of media content, and support new digital media distribution models that provide consumers with more choice and access to media content.

The Company issues more than 60 million identification documents (“IDs”) annually and is the leading supplier of government-issued citizen IDs in the United States, producing more than two-thirds of all driver licenses issued in the U.S.

We are also a pioneer and leading owner of intellectual property in a signal processing technology innovation known as “digital watermarking”, which allows imperceptible digital information to be embedded in all forms of digitally-designed, produced or distributed media content, including personal identification documents, financial instruments, photographs, movies, music and product packages. The embedded data within various types of media content can be detected and read by software or hardware detectors in personal computers and other digital devices.

Digital watermarking is a strategic component of nearly all of our product offerings. We provide solutions based on this technology directly and through our licensees. Digital watermarking has already proven to be a powerful differentiator in banknote security, giving rise to a long-term relationship with leading Central Banks and many leading companies in the IT industry. We are working to develop a similar success in secure identity management systems. We anticipate that more than one in three driver licenses issued in the U.S. in 2006 will carry digital watermarks as a means to provide cross-jurisdictional machine authentication.In addition, Digimarc and its licensees have successfully propagated digital watermarking in music, movies, television and radio broadcasts, images and printed materials. Digital watermarks have been used in these applications to provide improved media rights and asset management, reduced piracy and counterfeiting losses, improve marketing programs, and more efficient and effective distribution of valuable media content.

The majority of our revenue is derived from supplying infrastructure to government agencies pursuant to long-term contracts, primarily State driver license issuers, a consortium of leading Central Banks and national governments of various foreign countries. The industry model for the U.S. driver license market is characterized by long-term contracts awarded through competitive bids to prime contractors who take full responsibility for delivery and maintenance of driver license issuance systems. The remainder of our

20




revenue is generated through commercial applications of our digital watermarking and related technologies, primarily from patent and technology license fees paid by business partners. Our licensing business is built upon our extensive patent portfolio, which contains 267 issued U.S. patents as of June 30, 2006. We expect that patent licensing will continue to contribute most of our revenues from non-government customers for the foreseeable future.

Markets

Government

We believe that the U.S. driver license market will continue to grow due to broadening use of the driver license as a secure credential beyond its traditional role as evidence of competence to drive a motor vehicle; technological innovation; desire among issuers to improve security and efficiency; and new governmental regulations such as the REAL ID Act. We anticipate that these regulations will result in more opportunities for States to expand their existing driver license systems using Federal dollars. However, funding under the REAL ID Act, as well as guidance on future regulations that will more specifically define the requirements for compliance, have not been provided as quickly as we anticipated. We cannot predict the full extent to which we will benefit from funding under the REAL ID Act until the Department of Homeland Security provides such guidance. These future regulations may impose certain requirements, such as specific card architectures or security features, and may condition funding upon compliance with such requirements. In addition, the conditions for availability of grant money from the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Transportation for projects relating to compliance with the REAL ID Act, commercial driver license systems, and protection of the Homeland may cause some changes in the procurement model, but we cannot predict the likelihood or outcome of those changes at this time.

We believe that many aspects of our driver license issuance solutions have value in other forms of credentials and secure personal identification systems. As the global market for secure personal identification solutions develops, we believe that our position as the largest supplier of government-issued citizen IDs in the U.S. and Mexico and our extensive investments in research and development provide a good foundation for participation in the global market for government programs in establishing the identities of citizens and issuing associated credentials.

Media & Entertainment

Our technology is used in various products and solutions affecting a variety of media objects, from movies and music, to banknotes and secure credentials. Each media object enabled by our technology creates the potential for several applications, such as counterfeiting and piracy deterrence, media identification and management, authentication, monitoring, or linking to networks and enhanced services in support of mobile commerce. We believe the market for digital watermarking applications is in the early stages of development and that existing solutions represent only a small portion of the potential market for our products, services, and technologies. However, we cannot, as of the date of this report, provide reliable estimates of the size of these markets or predict the extent to which these markets will provide opportunities for revenue growth.

Products and Services

Financial Document Security

We have a multi-year contract with an international consortium of Central Banks in which we have developed, deployed, and are supporting and continuing to enhance a system to deter digital counterfeiting of currency using personal computers and digital reprographics. Work on the system began in 1997. Details of the system are confidential for security reasons.

21




Secure ID Solutions

As the leading provider of government-issued secure IDs in North America, our systems produce more than 60 million driver licenses and other secure personal IDs per year. Two-thirds of the U.S. States and many foreign governments, including Russia, Latvia, Mexico, and Canada, use Digimarc secure ID solutions to issue credentials to citizens. In North America, we are generally a prime contractor, providing full issuance systems to Federal, State, and Provincial departments of motor vehicles or other government issuing authorities. Our North American driver license issuance systems vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. These systems are typically provided pursuant to long-term (normally five or more years) contracts. The systems provided include the hardware, software, consumable supplies (such as ribbons, blank or preprinted card materials, and laminates), and on-going support necessary for a “turnkey” solution. They typically involve custom software and/or hardware development, integration services, and implementation services. When we provide a full issuance system to a customer, we generally retain title to all assets associated with the system and are responsible for maintaining the system over the contractual period. A digital driver license issuance system typically captures images (photo and signature) and demographic information, validates applicant identity, produces the actual driver license or ID (either at the point of service or at a central production facility operated by us), provides or delivers the finished driver license or other ID to the individual licensee, stores the images and associated data in a database, and communicates with the issuer’s other systems for completion of processing of the driver license applicants.

We are working on broadening our security offerings to provide more integrated identity verification and fraud detection capabilities within the issuance workflow of our customers. Many aspects of our solutions anticipate both the mandate of the REAL ID Act and the emerging consensus on best practices consistent with our product and service strategy. In 2005, we introduced the Digimarc Identity Validation Suite (“IDVS”) to validate identity documents and verify the biometric and demographic data presented to establish an applicant’s identity. As identity credentials become more secure and difficult to counterfeit, counterfeiters turn to producing false breeder documents to fuel attempts to fraudulently obtain valid secure credentials. Thus, the process of validating identity is becoming central to secure ID issuance as document quality improves, ensuring that only valid applicants receive genuine IDs. This market development is underscored by the focus of the REAL ID Act on identity validation. IDVS is our most strategic product offering in 2006, serving a growing demand by our customers for effective multi-factor identification of applicants.

In the second quarter of 2006, we introduced the next generation of three Digimarc secure enrollment products—the Digimarc Camera Tower, Digimarc Capture Software, and Digimarc Image Server—to digitally capture and manage the industry’s highest quality portraits, clear signatures, and reliable fingerprints. Together, these products securely capture, store and serve up the biometric images needed by driver license and other government ID issuers for card production, renewals, fraud investigation, and more. Additionally, knowledge testing, validation of documents and verification of applicant identity are keys to the secure intake and enrollment process, and a critical step toward ensuring that driver licenses are only issued to legitimate applicants.

Media and Entertainment

We license our technology and patents and otherwise foster development of the market for digital watermarking-based solutions for commercial as well as governmental uses. These licenses primarily involve use of our technology and patents in the media and entertainment area. Commercial customers use secure media solutions from our business partners and us to identify, track, manage and protect content as it is distributed and consumed—either digitally or physically—and to enable new consumer applications to access networks and information from PCs and mobile devices. Many movie studios, record labels,

22




broadcasters, creative professionals and other customers rely on digital watermarking as a cost-effective means to:

·       deter piracy and illegal use of movies, music and images;

·       protect entertainment content from copyright infringement;

·       track and monitor entertainment content for rights usage and licensing compliance;

·       monitor advertisements to verify ad placement and measure return on investment; and

·       enable fair and legitimate use of content by consumers.

Our business partners include Activated Content Corporation, AquaMobile, Cinea, Inc., a subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories, Inc., GCS Research LLC, MediaGrid, Nielsen Media Research, Inc., Royal Philips, Signum Technologies Limited, Thomson Multimedia, S.A., Verance Corporation, Verimatrix, Inc. and VCP (an affiliate of VEIL Interactive Technologies).

Additional Information

A more detailed discussion of our business is contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2006.

Recent Developments

In our report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ending March 31, 2006, we disclosed certain developments concerning our protest of a notice of intent to award a contract issued by the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (“DMV”) for the issuance of driver licenses. On April 5, 2006, DMV issued a notice of intent to award a contract to Canadian Bank Note Secure Technologies, Inc. (“CBN”) for a new driver license issuance system pursuant to RFP 154:5-060. On April 17, 2006, Digimarc filed a protest of this award, based in part on certain alleged irregularities in the evaluation process and the assertion that the CBN proposal did not represent the best value for the Commonwealth and its citizens. On April 27, 2006, DMV issued a response, in which it rescinded the Notice of Intent to Award. The DMV response stated that “Digimarc’s protest raises issues that DMV believes warrant further consideration and evaluation” and that, “[i]n addition, DMV has determined that certain details pertaining to the agreement with the proposed contractor were still being addressed when the earlier notice was posted.” On June 1, 2006, DMV cancelled the RFP and informed bidders that DMV is working to issue a new RFP in the near future.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to bad debts, inventories, intangible assets, income taxes, restructuring, long-term service contracts, warranties, investments, contingencies and litigation, and inputs related to stock-based compensation calculations. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Certain of our accounting policies require higher degrees of judgment than others in their application. These include revenue recognition on long-term service contracts, impairments and estimation of useful lives of long-lived assets, inventory valuation, reserves for uncollectible accounts receivable, contingencies

23




and litigation, and inputs related to stock-based compensation calculations. We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:

Revenue recognition on long-term service contracts:   We recognize revenue on long-term identification and driver license production contracts using primarily a price-per-card method. We use actual monthly volume amounts, if available, or we estimate the card production volume on a monthly basis for certain of these contracts in order to recognize revenue earned during the period. In the case of estimates, when the actual production information becomes available, which is typically within four weeks, we bill the customer accordingly and any differences from the estimates are recognized in the month the billing occurs. These amounts represent our best estimates of cards produced and are based on historical trends, known events during the period, and discussions with contract representatives. Prior to publicly reporting results, our practice is to compare the actual production volumes to estimated production volumes and adjust revenue amounts as necessary. Any estimated amounts are included in unbilled receivables on the balance sheet until the actual production information is available and the billing occurs. Any estimation process involves inherent risk. We reduce the inherent risk relating to production estimation through our approval and monitoring processes related to accounting estimates. We also evaluate contracts for multiple elements and account for these items under the appropriate accounting literature.

Revenue from professional services arrangements is generally determined based on time and material or a cost plus a profit margin measure. Revenue for professional services is recognized as the services are performed. Losses on contracts, if any, are provided for in the period in which the loss becomes determinable. Billing for services rendered generally occurs within one month following when the services are provided. Revenue earned which has not been invoiced is classified as unbilled trade receivables in the consolidated balance sheets.

Impairments and estimation of useful lives of long-lived assets:   We periodically assess long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, in accordance with the provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144,  Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets. This statement requires that long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles be reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Fair value is determined based on discounted cash flows or appraised values, depending on the nature of the asset. If our estimates of projected future cash flows were too high by 10% or less, we believe there would be no material impact on the reported value of intangible assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheet. Also, we periodically review the useful lives of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the useful life may have changed. If the estimated useful lives of such assets do change, we adjust the depreciation or amortization period to a shorter or longer period, based on the circumstances identified.

Inventory valuation:   Inventory consists primarily of consumable supplies that are used in the production of driver licenses and products held for resale to customers. We value inventory at the lower of cost or market value (which lower amount is the net realizable value). We reduce the value of our inventory for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated market value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. If actual market conditions are less favorable than those projected by management, additional inventory write-downs may be required.

24




Reserves for uncollectible accounts receivable:   We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. We determine the allowance based on historical write-off experience and current information. We review, and adjust when appropriate, our allowance for doubtful accounts on at least a quarterly basis. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. If our estimate of uncollectible accounts were too low by 10% or less, we believe there would be no material impact on the reported value of accounts receivable on our consolidated balance sheets.

Contingencies and Litigation:   We periodically evaluate all pending or threatened contingencies or commitments, if any, that are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial position. We assess the probability of an adverse outcome and determine if it is remote, reasonably possible or probable as defined in accordance with the provisions of SFAS No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies. If information available prior to the issuance of our financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred at the date of our financial statements, and the amount of the loss, or the range of probable loss can be reasonably estimated, then such loss is accrued and charged to operations. If no accrual is made for a loss contingency because one or both of the conditions pursuant to SFAS No. 5 are not met, but the probability of an adverse outcome is at least reasonably possible, we will disclose the nature of the contingency and provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss, or state that such an estimate cannot be made.

Stock-Based Compensation:   On January 1, 2006, we adopted SFAS 123(R), which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation for all stock-based awards made to employees and directors including stock options and employee stock purchases under a stock purchase plan based on estimated fair values. Under SFAS 123(R), we use the Black-Scholes option pricing model as our method of valuation for stock-based awards. Our determination of the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using an option pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to the expected life of the award, our expected stock price, volatility over the term of the award and actual and projected exercise behaviors. Although the fair value of stock-based awards is determined in accordance with SFAS 123(R), the Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, and other reasonable assumptions could provide differing results.

25




Results of Operations

The following table presents our condensed consolidated statements of operations data for the periods indicated as a percentage of total revenue.

 

 

Three Months Ended 
June 30,

 

Six Months Ended 
June 30,

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

2006

 

2005

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

 

82

%

 

 

87

%

 

 

82

%

 

 

84

%

 

Product and subscription

 

 

18

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

18

 

 

 

16

 

 

Total revenue

 

 

100

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

100

 

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

 

60

 

 

 

63

 

 

 

62

 

 

 

59

 

 

Product and subscription

 

 

7

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

7

 

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

67

 

 

 

67

 

 

 

70

 

 

 

66

 

 

Gross profit

 

 

33

 

 

 

33

 

 

 

30

 

 

 

34

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

19

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

17

 

 

 

16

 

 

Research, development and engineering

 

 

12

 

 

 

14

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

13

 

 

General and administrative

 

 

17

 

 

 

22

 

 

 

18

 

 

 

23

 

 

Amortization of intangibles

 

 

2

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

4

 

 

Intellectual property

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

Restructuring charges, net

 

 

2

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

0

 

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

54

 

 

 

59

 

 

 

52

 

 

 

58

 

 

Operating income (loss)

 

 

(21

)

 

 

(26

)

 

 

(22

)

 

 

(24

)

 

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

Other

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

Total other income, net

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

Income (loss) before provision for income taxes

 

 

(20

)

 

 

(25

)

 

 

(21

)

 

 

(23

)

 

Provision for income taxes

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

 

(20

)%

 

 

(25

)%

 

 

(21

)%

 

 

(23

)%

 

 

Revenue

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

Six Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

 

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

(Decrease)

 

(Decrease)

 

2006

 

2005

 

(Decrease)

 

(Decrease)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

$

20,519

 

$

21,616

 

 

$

(1,097

)

 

 

(5

)%

 

$

42,809

 

$

41,212

 

 

$

1,597

 

 

 

4

%

 

Product and subscription

 

4,388

 

3,137

 

 

1,251

 

 

 

40

%

 

9,291

 

7,920

 

 

1,371

 

 

 

17

%

 

Total

 

$

24,907

 

$

24,753

 

 

$

154

 

 

 

1

%

 

$

52,100

 

$

49,132

 

 

$

2,968

 

 

 

6

%

 

Revenue (as % of total revenue):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

82

%

87

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82

%

84

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product and subscription

 

18

%

13

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

%

16

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

100

%

100

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

%

100

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26




Service.   Service revenue consists primarily of card production on a price-per-card basis, software development services, and hardware and software maintenance. The majority of service revenue arrangements are typically structured as price-per-card product agreements, time and materials consulting agreements, or fixed price consulting agreements. Service revenue is an umbrella category consisting of both service revenue and contract-based service revenue. The distinction between these two subcategories is that service revenue is generated from long-term identification and driver license production contracts, while contract-based service revenue is generated from other long-term, time-and-materials service contracts.

Service revenue decreased for the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding three-month period ended June 30, 2005 primarily due to decreased card issuance revenue from the Mexico program that resulted from a several month hiatus related to national elections. The increase in revenue for the six-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding six-month period ended June 30, 2005 resulted primarily from increased production for certain programs including Florida, Alabama, Haiti and Latvia, offset by decreased revenue from the Mexico program.

In addition, we have observed seasonality in our service revenues, with larger revenues in the second and third quarter of the year, and generally lower revenues in the first and fourth quarters. The fourth quarter is usually the seasonally lowest quarter each year. We expect our service revenue results in the third quarter of 2006 to be consistent with this pattern of seasonality.

Product and subscription.   Product and subscription revenue consists primarily of the sale of equipment and consumables related to identification card production systems, software licenses, and subscriptions related to various software products.

Product and subscription revenue increased for the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding three-month period ended June 30, 2005 primarily due to several programs, including Ghana, Russia and Florida. The increase in revenue between the six-month period ended June 30, 2006 and the corresponding six month period ended June 30, 2005 resulted primarily from a new international program with Yemen, which was offset by decreased domestic revenue due to lower product sales to certain domestic customers in 2006.

Backlog.   Based on projected driver license production volumes and other commitments we have for the periods under contract with our respective customers, we anticipate our current contracts as of June 30, 2006 will generate more than $220 million in revenue during the contractual terms of such contracts, currently up to seven years. We expect approximately $40 million of this amount to be recognized as revenue during the remainder of 2006. This amount includes production volumes reasonably expected to be achieved under currently effective contracts, government orders that are firm but not yet funded, and government contracts awarded but not yet signed.

Some factors that lead to increased backlog are:

·       Competitive bid wins,

·       Renewals with current customers,

·       Add-on sales to current customers, and

·       Contracts with longer contractual periods replacing contracts with shorter contractual periods.

Some factors that lead to decreased backlog are:

·       Recognition of revenue associated with backlog currently in place,

·       Periods following low bid activity,

·       Contracts with shorter contractual periods replacing contracts with longer contractual periods, and

27




·       The revenue model utilized for a particular customer (e.g., a “price-per-card” model with a large associated backlog vs. a “hardware and consumables” model with a small associated backlog).

The mix of these factors, among others, dictates whether our backlog increases or decreases for any given period. For example, the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 had a low level of bid awards, and as a result we have consumed backlog during the quarter without large replenishments from competitive bid wins. Over the next year or so, we anticipate several States to request bids on their driver license issuance system programs. This period of expected high bid activity could lead to additional backlog if we are successful with our bids. Another example is the variable revenue model. Two of our recent domestic driver license issuance system sales were not our characteristic price-per-card model, but instead included hardware and consumable sales. Although these types of revenue models are positive growth indicators for our business, they can lead to lower reported backlog.

There can be no assurance that our backlog will result in actual revenue in any particular period, because the orders, awards and contracts included in our backlog may be subject to modification, cancellation or suspension. We may not realize revenue on certain contracts, orders or awards included in our backlog or the timing of such recognition may change.

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

Six Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

 

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

(Decrease)

 

(Decrease)

 

2006

 

2005

 

(Decrease)

 

(Decrease)

 

Revenue by geography:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domestic

 

$

21,112

 

$

20,108

 

 

$

1,004

 

 

 

5

%

 

$

41,307

 

$

40,069

 

 

$

1,238

 

 

 

3

%

 

International

 

3,795

 

4,645

 

 

(850

)

 

 

(18

)%

 

10,793

 

9,063

 

 

1,730

 

 

 

19

%

 

Total

 

$

24,907

 

$

24,753

 

 

$

154

 

 

 

1

%

 

$

52,100

 

$

49,132

 

 

$

2,968

 

 

 

6

%

 

Revenue (as % of total revenue):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domestic

 

85

%

81

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

79

%

82

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

International

 

15

%

19

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

%

18

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

100

%

100

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

%

100

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The increase in domestic revenue for the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 as compared to the corresponding three-month period ended June 30, 2005 resulted primarily from increased revenue from certain programs such as Florida and Alabama that were either delivered or achieved full production in early 2006. The increase in revenue for the six-month period ended June 30, 2006 as compared to the corresponding six-month period ended June 30, 2005 was due primarily to increased revenue from the Florida and Alabama programs offset by lower production revenues in certain States that occur from time to time. The decrease in international revenue for the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding three-month period ended June 30, 2005 was due primarily to decreased revenue from the second quarter hiatus in our Mexico plant due to national elections. The increase in international revenue for the six-month period ended June 30, 2006 as compared to the corresponding six-month period ended June 30, 2005 was due primarily to increased revenue from Yemen, Haiti, and Latvia programs that were either delivered or achieved full production in early 2006, offset by the Mexico program.

In non-U.S. markets, where we provide driver license, national identification, and voter identification systems, services, and components in partnership with local card producers, security printers, system integrators, and others, we may serve as prime contractor or sub-contractor, depending on the circumstances. As a sub-contractor, we are responsible for delivering hardware, software, or consumables to the prime contractor; and, as a prime contractor, we are responsible for integrating the components of the system to the customer’s specifications.

28




International sales have typically taken the form of an outright sale of equipment and/or consumables to non-U.S. government agencies or their prime contractors. These sales often can be large, carry relatively low margins and may cause variations in quarterly revenue and gross profit trends. Despite the relatively low margins, we enter into such contracts from time to time to maintain market presence and build customer and partner relationships, as such programs often transition to more profitable digital technologies over time. Due to the nature of such international programs and customers, the timing of these sales is less predictable than our service revenues provided by domestic customers and, consequently, international sales can occur unevenly during the course of a year. We believe that international growth opportunities exist for us, and we expect to continue to invest in personnel and resources to support our potential revenue growth outside of the U.S.

Cost of Revenue

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

Six Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

 

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

(Decrease)

 

(Decrease)

 

2006

 

2005

 

(Decrease)

 

(Decrease)

 

Cost of Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

$

15,002

 

$

15,471

 

 

$

(469

)

 

 

(3

)%

 

$

32,101

 

$

29,195

 

 

$

2,906

 

 

 

10

%

 

Product and subscription

 

1,675

 

1,089

 

 

586

 

 

 

54

%

 

4,224

 

3,442

 

 

782

 

 

 

23

%

 

Total

 

$

16,677

 

$

16,560

 

 

$

117

 

 

 

1

%

 

$

36,325

 

$

32,637

 

 

$

3,688

 

 

 

11

%

 

Cost of Revenue (as % of related revenue components):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

73

%

72

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

%

71

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product and subscription

 

38

%

35

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

%

43

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service.   Cost of service revenue primarily includes costs of consumables used in delivering a service, compensation for software developers, quality assurance personnel, product managers, field operations personnel, business development personnel and outside contractors, depreciation charges for machinery, equipment and capitalized software, deployment costs used specifically for service delivery, provisions for obsolete and excess inventories, travel costs directly attributable to service and development contracts, and charges for infrastructure and centralized costs.

Cost of service revenue decreased for the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding three-month period ended June 30, 2005 primarily due to:

·       decreased program costs related to cost reduction initiatives of $0.6 million,

·       decreased employee compensation-related expenses of $0.2 million as part of a restructuring initiative, offset by

·       increased allocated infrastructure and centralized costs of $0.3 million primarily due to system upgrades and enhancements in our information technology department.

Cost of service revenue increased for the six-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding six-month period ended June 30, 2005 primarily due to the increased support cost of $3.2 million. During the first two quarters of the fiscal year the Company allocated additional resources to fixing and improving existing programs and experienced delays in initiation of certain capital projects. As a result, support costs increased and fewer expenditures were capitalized to the balance sheet

29




Product and subscription.   Cost of product and subscription revenue primarily includes compensation for operations personnel, costs of consumables sold to third parties, costs of machinery sold to third parties, and Internet service provider connectivity charges and image search data fees to support the services offered to our subscription customers.

Cost of product and subscription revenue increased for the three-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding three-month period ended June 30, 2005 primarily due to increased domestic and international material costs of $0.6 million related to hardware and consumable sales.

Cost of product and subscription revenue increased for the six-month period ended June 30, 2006 compared to the corresponding six-month period ended June 30, 2005 primarily due to increased international material costs of $1.6 million, offset by lower domestic material costs of $0.6 million related to hardware and consumable sales.

The costs included in our cost of revenue are comprised of three categories as described below:

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

Six Months Ended

 

Dollar

 

Percent

 

 

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

June 30,

 

Increase

 

Increase

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

(Decrease)

 

(Decrease)

 

2006